Build a bibliography or works cited page the easy way
I use dextrose instead of maltodextrine. Channel 4 mA max — 4 Violet UV. Along with new spaces, there must also be a human resource development and expansion strategy to ensure enough ECEs are available to meet licensing requirements for proportion of trained staff. The independence of a quasi-judicial administrative tribunal is a model for protecting the independence of decision making that rests at one end of the spectrum relative to international practice. The caucus adopted important decisions aimed at improving c oordination within the labour constituency, strengthening NEDLAC as an institution and reviving the GDS process. Failure to organise atypical workers.
Optimal 8-band spectrum IR and UV light
The model year Chevrolet Suburban received upgraded changes after it went on sale in August The LS trims also saw the badged "LS" lettering removed. The new features includes two new colors Blue Velvet Metallic and Pepperdust Metallic , two new inch wheel options a 7-spoke Silver wheels with Chrome inserts for all trims; Ultra Bright machined aluminum wheels with Bright Silver finish for Premier trim only , black roof rack cross rails as part of the Texas Edition Package and All-Season Package , front active aero shutters all trims , and heated and vented seats Premier trim only.
The model year Yukon XL also received similar changes, but with a few exceptions. Two new colors, Dark Blue Sapphire Metallic and Mineral Metallic were introduced, the latter exclusive to the Denali, which ialso added a new inch ultra bright aluminum wheels with midnight silver premium paint and a head-up display to its features.
The interior backlights changed from red to blue. The heated and vented driver and front passenger seats are now standard on the SLT and Denali trims. The model year Suburban had a few upgrades and deletions. The LED daytime running lights became standard on all trims, along with a new color, havana brown and satin steel metallic.
The Yukon Denali XL received a new grille with a layered appearance like the ones on its redesigned Acadia and Terrain brands, featuring high-intensity-discharge headlights and LED daytime running lights. The refreshed design provides better airflow to the radiator, and when less cooling air is needed, shutters behind the grille close to improve aerodynamics and increase efficiency. The interior featured new ash wood trim that GMC says gives the cabin a richer appearance.
A new speed automatic transmission was mated to its horsepower, 6. The model year will be the last model year of the eleventh generation. The Suburban will only see minor changes as the twelfth generation Suburban is planned to be launched in as a model. Both Havana Metallic and Tungsten Metallic are deleted in favor of a new Shadow Gray Metallic exterior color, while the top of the line Premier will now have the name displayed on the tailgate.
Each of the specialty versions are available at the LT and Premier level trims. As with the previous Z71 Suburbans, this version continued to be offered in a 4WD LT trim only, featuring a front skid plate, off-road tires mounted on inch wheels, a unique grille, running boards and "Z71" identification inside and out.
Fog lamps, front tow hooks and front parking assist are also included. The Z71 package was modified again, as portions of the Z71 items added on the Texas Edition package as an optional feature by request from customers was discontinued, making it a stand-alone package. The Texas Edition Suburban, which became part of the Texas Edition lineup along with the Tahoe and Silverado, was available in both LT and LTZ trims for the model year, featuring a maximum trailering package, twenty-inch polished aluminum wheels on LT models , twenty-two-inch premium painted aluminum wheels on LTZ models , and an exclusive "Texas Edition" badge.
The Suburban LT Signature Edition is an optional package trim, similar to the luxury package but with less expensive features, available in the LT level trim only. This version became part of the Signature Edition Suburban feature for the model year. On August 13, , Chevrolet introduced a more upgraded version of the top of the line Premier level trim of the Suburban, packaged as the Premier Plus, featuring a 6. The exterior features standard cross rails, chrome power steps, and chrome exhaust tips.
Originally at the time of the announcement, it was supposed to be available as an option for the LT and Premier trims as a Performance Package that included a hp, 6. However, after the press release Chevrolet confirmed that the RST Suburban would only be available as an appearance package, as the 6. The packaged trim is scheduled to go on sale in early Summer A HD Suburban became available in as a model.
However, this version, identified as a Class 3 vehicle around 10, to 14, pound GVWR , is only available for sale to rental companies and commercial fleet entities as a 4WD vehicle and will use the same design as the twelfth generation version, but uses a different engine altogether. There is no 2WD or upgraded packages. This is government-exclusive and available in 4WD LS and LT trims only, weighing around 11, pound GVWR, inch machined aluminum wheels 8 lug , a high capacity air cleaner, amp alternator, external engine oil cooler and auxiliary transmission cooler.
Although the vehicle has a high GVWR, it is configured to provide a minimal towing capacity and is primarily intended for conversion to an armored vehicle. There is no diesel variant of the full-size SUVs for the model year. Afterwards, Chevrolet made its parts available for order at Chevrolet Accessories.
The rear windows are removed. The concept was inspired by Bryan himself and collaborated with Chevrolet on this project as he is an owner of a Suburban: This partnership is a natural fit for me and this unique Suburban represents everything I and my family want for our outdoor adventures.
The Suburban is among the selected vehicles that will be available with this option. The news of the redesigned Suburban and Yukon XL have so far been met with positive reviews from automotive critics who praised GM's devotion and commitment to keeping the Suburban and its sister SUVs in production due to their popularity and sales.
A test drive that was done on February 25, received positive reviews for its speed, handling, technology, and performance from The Fast Lane,  and an overall 9 rating out of 10 from Canada's Autonet.
In a review from Automobile Magazine, writer Greg Migliore notes that despite the reception from both sides and the possibility that other automakers might exit the large SUV segment, that with this 12th generation, "GM is clearly hoping the Suburban makes it to the century mark.
On May 24, , Autoblog reported and posted spy shots for the Chevrolet Suburban. The twelfth generation version, which will be built on the VSS-T platform which has a project code of T1YC  , will feature a independent rear suspension.
The vehicle is expected to be unveiled in early Meanwhile, GM Authority made a blog on what to expect on the Suburban showing its power train lineup and trim levels but it is still unconfirmed about it final specifications. The Escalade's updated design will be based on the Escala Concept car.
The interest in the redesigned twelfth generation Suburban has also translated into surging sales. In April it saw a The move also resulted in its Arlington Assembly adding more hours and increasing its production from 48, SUVs to 60, based on the expanding hours and added Saturday overtime shifts. The MY Suburban saw its biggest sales increase in January , when it posted a The dashboard has additional controls and dataplates.
The truck also can be equipped with weapon supports in the cab, cargo tie down hooks, folding troop seats, pioneer tools, winches, and other military accessories. The Enhanced Mobility Package EMP option adds an uprated suspension, 4-wheel anti-lock brakes, a locking rear differential, beadlock tires, a tire pressure monitoring system and other upgrades. For the model year, the Suburban received the U. Because of more stringent tests, and newer model ratings are not comparable to — ratings.
The NHTSA gave the models 4 stars overall in its review, similar to its review of its models. It gave the Suburban an Acceptable rating along with the Tahoe and Yukon. The Escalade also got an Acceptable rating.
However, all four including the Yukon XL got a Good rating for head protection in side and seats and head restraints. However, —09 models without side airbags got a Poor rating. Models with them got a Marginal rating. The pickups have been tested against the moderate overlap test, for which they received a good rating. On March 28, , GM announced a recall on the Suburban and Yukon XL in order to fix a "transmission oil cooler line that is not securely seated in its fitting," causing the vehicle to stop and rupture the oil cooling line, resulting in the engine to malfunction and catch fire immediately.
On June 6, , GM issued another recall on the Suburban and Yukon XL because their radio control modules may not work, and thus prevent certain audible safety warnings. On December 5, , GM announced that it is replacing ignition key units on the Suburban and Yukon XL after customers made complaints that the shift lever strikes the head of the key if the tilt-adjustable steering column is in the fully up position.
The lever only can be moved out of "park" into a gear when the engine is running and the driver's foot is on the brake. The push-button ignition features are not affected. On January 4, , GM issued a recall on eleventh-generation Suburbans and Yukon XLs from the and model years for a potential ignition lock actuator issue, citing that they are not the right size and can cause the ignition to get stuck in the "Start" position, and then either due to a jarring event or a "cool interior temperature" the ignition could switch back to the "Accessory" position, resulting in a loss of power assistance and prevent the airbags from deploying.
GM is aware of this and has moved to correct the situation and try to pinpoint the source, but assures the vehicles are safe to drive. On May 3, , GM placed a recall on both model Suburbans and Yukon XLs over inadequate welds on their upper front control arms, which could result in an accident or injury.
On February 4, , GM issued a recall on and Chevrolet Suburban HD models over an improperly fixed right-hand rear-view outside mirror which GM says will replaced for free. The recall affected vehicles. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. It is not to be confused with GMC Denali. This article may contain an excessive amount of intricate detail that may interest only a particular audience.
Please help by spinning off or relocating any relevant information, and removing excessive detail that may be against Wikipedia's inclusion policy. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicle. Government Police Cars Web Site. Archived from the original on November 30, Retrieved November 29, Sixty Years of Chevrolet.
Retrieved January 16, Evolution of an Icon". Retrieved August 25, Retrieved October 22, Retrieved February 20, Archived from the original on February 14, Standard Catalog of Chevrolet Trucks. Retrieved March 11, Retrieved October 6, Archived from the original PDF on September 16, Holden Suburban — ". Retrieved April 5, Archived from the original on February 1, Archived from the original on July 22, Retrieved August 13, Archived from the original PDF on October 15, Retrieved September 21, Archived from the original PDF on July 4, Chevrolet celebrates Suburban's 75th Anniversary with Diamond Edition".
Retrieved February 17, Retrieved June 24, Archived from the original on April 17, Retrieved April 17, Several differe nt fusion processes have been identified, and stars from about half the size of the Sun to about nine times larger can undergo a process known as s-process fusion late in their lives, and that process has created about half of the elements heavier than iron; bismuth is the heaviest element created by the process.
Those heavier elements are eventually blown from the star by its stellar wind as it becomes a white dwarf. Stars with more than nine times the mass of the Sun undergo a different process at the end of their lives. That collapse creates the pressures needed to fuse those other atoms heavier than iron, including the heaviest elements.
Uranium is the heaviest naturally produced element. In an instant, r-process fusion occurs. When a star becomes a supernova, those heavy elements are sprayed into the galactic neighborhood by a stupendous release of fusion energy. Over the subsequent eons, gravity will cause the remnants of stars, and hydrogen that had not yet become a star or did not fuse within a star, to coalesce into an accretion disk , and a new star with its attendant planets will form.
The Sun will take more than ten billion years to live its life cycle before becoming a white dwarf. Large stars burn much more quickly and can become supernovas after as little as ten million years of main-sequence burning.
The accretion disk from which the Sun and its planets were formed appeared in a relatively short time, and the disk was originally a molecular cloud that may have been disturbed by an exploding star.
A "local" exploding star likely provided the bulk of our solar system's matter, and the entire mess gravitationally collapsed into the disk. In a mere 50 million years after formation, the Sun became compressed enough to initiate the sustained fusion that still powers it and will for several billion more years. Those that began their lives inside the frost line were rocky, and those outside the frost line were generally comprised of lighter elements.
Those planetesimals bombarded the forming planets and increased their mass. Other planetesimals were ejected from the solar system as the gravity of the Sun and planets whipped them around. Venus and Mars were also bombarded with the lighter elements and may have plentiful water long ago, but only Earth retained its water. The biggest colli sion between Earth and its neighbors may well have created the Moon , and although the currently prevailing hypothesis has plenty of problems, the other hypotheses have more.
At this time, dark energy and dark matter have never been observed. Any theory that relies on unobserved phenomena is going to be highly provisional, and I consider it unlikely that the prevailing cosmological theories a century from now will much resemble those of today.
The scale of the universe, from its largest to smallest objects, is truly difficult to imagine, and this animation can help provide some perspective. The scale of geologic time strains human brains with its immensity. The journey of life on Earth has been greatly affected by geophysical and geochemical processes as well as influences from beyond Earth, such as:. It seems to me, however, that geophysical and geochemical processes are understood better and have more robust data than many other areas of science, so geophysics and geochemistry are areas where I expect fewer radical changes than others.
Maybe that is because it is neither too big nor too small and closer to our daily reality than distant stars or what is happening inside atoms. Tectonic plate movements can alter the circulation of the atmosphere and ocean. Tectonic plates can collide, such as the collision of India into Asia , which formed the Himalayan Mountains and raised the Tibetan Plateau.
That may have contributed to the ice age that we currently experience, although other studies indicate that the carbon removal may have been more due to the burial of organic matter.
The debate is continuing as the complex dynamics are subjected to scientific investigation. It is already nearly PPM and rising fast. Ultrav iolet light breaks water vapor into hydrogen and oxygen. Scientists believe that that happened to Venus and Mars, although Venus may have never cooled enough to form liquid water; it split in the atmosphere and hydrogen then escaped to space. On Earth, that hydrogen liberated by ultraviolet light reacts with atmospheric oxygen and turns back into water before it can escape into space.
Photosynthesis led to atmospheric oxygen, which led to the ozone layer that helped prevent the splitting of water, and atmospheric oxygen recaptured hydrogen that would have otherwise escaped to space, which prevented the oceans from disappearing, which probably led to plate tectonics, which led to the formation of granitic continents , which led to land-based life. In short, life made Earth more conducive to life.
That is the most important impact of life on geophysical and geochemical processes, but far from the only one; others will be explored in this essay. Geology in the West is considered to have begun during the Classic Greek period , and Persian and Chinese scholars furthered the discipline during the medieval period. There is a constant upwelling of mass from the mantle, riding those energy currents. Three bya, the continents may have only had about a quarter of the mass that they do today.
The granites formed when basalt was exposed to water , and the process partly replaced heavier iron with lighter sodium and potassium. Water also became incorporated into the rocks, generally where the heavier oceanic crust was subducted below the lighter continental crust. Those tectonic plates have been likened to the surface of a pot of boiling oatmeal.
Plates can collide and form mountains, and they can pull apart and expose the hot interior, which spews out in volcanism at the edges of tectonic plates , including ridges in the oceans.
The mantle is thought to be mostly oxygen and silicon, and the remainder is largely composed of the lighter alkali and alkaline earth metals, such as sodium, potassium, and calcium.
Those mantle metals are primarily bound in oxides. The crust also is almost solely comprised of oxides. Land-based biomass is about times greater than ocean-based biomass. Life as we know it seems to be rare and delicate, found nowhere else in our solar system so far, and few places seem promising for it to exist. Earth rec eives less than one-billionth of the energy that the Sun produces. That infinitesimal proportion captured by photosynthesis is the basis for nearly all life on Earth.
Planets with weak magnetic fields, such as Mars, are believed to be vulnerable to the solar wind stripping away their atmospheres. If Earth did not have a magnetic field, its ozone layer may have been stripped away , which may have led to the extinction of complex life on Earth, if it would have ever appeared at all. The fact that complex life exists on Earth seems to be a miracle of circumstance.
A naked human would not have survived for a minute on the Hadean Earth. The Moon was probably created during the Hadean Eon when a planet-sized mass collided with Earth. Appearance of life on Earth , and its energetic basis Role of DNA , enzymes , ATP , and membranes Basic aspects of life Biochemistry , geochemical cycles , and entropy Respiration and photosynthesis Split of bacteria and archaea Oxygenic photosynthesis Formation of the continents, plate tectonics Great Oxygenation Event , and formation of the iron deposits , the first ice age , and formation of the ozone layer Development of the complex cell and its energy centers - the mitochondria - and mitochondrial DNA Development of aerobic respiration Free radicals and cell death Formation of supercontinents Evolutionary struggles , the appearance of plants , sexual reproduction , grazing , and predation One-way path of evolution Above a ll else, life is an energy acquisition process.
All life exploits the potential energy in various atomic and molecular arrangements, or captures energy directly, as in photosynthesis. Early life ex ploited the potential energy of chemicals. The chemosynthetic ideal is capturing chemicals fresh to new environments that have yet to react with other chemicals.
The currently most-accepted hypothesis has life first appearing on Earth about 3. Life had to be opportunistic and quick in order to capture that energy before other molecules did. When life first appeared on Earth, the evolutionary process that led to humanity began. The USA's population has more doubt about evolution than any other Western nation , and that is primarily because Biblical literalism is still strong here.
In all other Western nations, there is virtually no controversy over evolution being a fact of existence, and those nations view the controversy over evolution in the USA with befuddlement. Many molecules with the same atomic structure can form mirror images of themselves. That mirror-image phenomenon is called chirality.
In nature, such mirror images occur randomly, but life prefers one mirror image over the other. In all life on Earth, proteins are virtually without exception left-handed, while sugars are right-handed. All other lineages died out the likely answer, and there was probably hundreds of millions of years of evolution on Earth before LUCA lived , or they may have all descended from the same original organism. As we will see, this is far from the only instance when such seminal events are considered to have probably happened only once.
Also, the unique structure of DNA and many enzymes are common to all life, and they did not have to form the way that they did. That they came through different ancestral lines is extremely unlikely. The critic al feature of earliest life had to be a way to reproduce itself, and DNA is common to all cellular life today. The DNA that exists today was almost certainly not a feature of the first life.
If w e think about activation energy at the molecular level, it is the energy that crashes molecules into each other, and if they are crashed into each other fast enough and hard enough, the reaction becomes more likely. But that is an incredibly inefficient way to do it.
Proteins make the process far easier, and those proteins are called enzymes. Enzymes speed up chemical reactions and they do it as in the above analogy but as if a person entered that room, picked up the key, and inserted it into the lock. That took far less effort than shaking up the room a million times. Enzymes are like hands that grab two molecules and bring them into alignment so that the key inserts into the lock.
The lock-and-key analogy is the standard way to explain enzymes to non-scientists. Life would never have grown beyond some microscopic curiosities without the assistance that enzymes provide. Almost a ll enzymes are proteins, which are generally huge molecules with intricate folds.
The animation of human glyoxalase below depicts a standard enzyme author is WillowW at Wikipedia , and the zinc ions that make it work are the purple balls.
Enzymes lo ok like Rube Goldberg-ish contraptions when their function is considered: Proteins have a four-level structure , and the second level is held in place by hydrogen bonds.
An enzyme can catalyze millions of reactions per second. Adenosine triphosphate "ATP" is a coenzyme used to fuel all known biological processes. The human body produces its own weight in ATP each day. Cyanide kills by disabling a key enzyme that produces ATP, which induces an energy shortage at the cellular level.
There are two primary aspects of life, and what can be observed in human civilization are often only more complex iterations of those aspects, which are:. Life harnessed energy so that it could manipulate matter to create itself;.
Life created information so that it could reproduce itself. Entropy is another important concept for this essay. Entropy is, in its essence, the tendency of hot things to cool off. The concept is now introduced to students as energy dispersal. Even though science really does not know what energy is , it can measure its effect. At the molecular level, entropy is the tendency of mass to become disordered over time, as the random motion of molecules spreads in collisions with other molecules, until the interacting molecules have the same temperature.
Life had to overcome entropy in order to exist, as it brought order out of disorder and maintained it while alive, and it takes energy to do that. The prevailing theory is that net entropy can only increase, and life has to create more entropy in its surroundings so that it can reduce entropy internally and produce and maintain the order that sustains itself.
Of those key elements necessary for life as we know it , the most diverse is carbon, with that half-filled outer electron shell.
Carbon can form one, two, three, and four bonds with itself and so forms the most diverse bonds with itself of all elements, and an entire branch of chemistry is devoted to carbon, called organic chemistry. Organic molecules are by far the largest known to science.
In the eyes of an organic chemist, burning fossil hydrocarbons to fuel our industrial world is like making Einstein dig ditches or making Pavarotti wash dishes for a living. Nitrogen and phosphorus are the most vital elements for life after carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. In its pure state in nature, nitrogen, like hydrogen and oxygen, is a diatomic molecule. Hydrogen in nature is single-bonded to itself, oxygen is double-bonded, and nitrogen is triple-bonded. Because of that triple bond , nitrogen is quite unreactive and prefers to stay bonded to itself.
In nature, nitrogen will not significantly react with other substances unless the temperature activation energy is very high. Also, some bacteria can fix nitrogen directly from atmospheric nitrogen, but it is an energy-intensive operation that uses the energy in eight ATP molecules to fix each atom of nitrogen. For the earliest life on Earth, nitrogen would have been essential, and some nitrogen is fixed at volcanic vents , where life may have first appeared.
It has held that dominant status for billions of years. Carbon dioxide, on the other hand, has been generally decreasing as an atmospheric gas for billions of years, and has consistently declined for the past million years.
The geochemical process is like nitrogen's in that atmospheric water combines with carbon dioxide to form a weak acid, which then falls to Earth in precipitation. But carbon is in the same elemental family as an abundant crustal element: Carbon replaces the silicon in crustal compounds and turns silicates into carbonates in a process called silicate weathering.
More carbon di oxide was removed from the atmosphere by those processes than was reintroduced to the atmosphere by volcanism and other processes. When life first appeared, it was single-celled and simple, and such organisms are called prokaryotes today. Below is a diagram of a typical prokaryotic cell. The diagrams used in this chapter are only intended to provide a glimpse of the incredible complexity of structure and chemistry that takes place at the microscopic level in organisms, and people can be forgiven for doubting that it is all a miraculous accident.
I doubt it, too, as did Einstein. Prokaryotes do not have organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts, and nuclei, but even the simplest cell is a marvel of complexity. Cellular division would be an amazing sight. The so-called tree of life at the microbe level better resembles a web. In the earliest days of life on Earth, it had to solve the problems of how to reproduce, how to separate itself from its environment, how to acquire raw materials, and how to make the chemical reactions that it needed.
The earliest process of skimming energy from energy gradients to power life is called respiration. That earliest respiration is today called anaerobic respiration because there was virtually no free oxygen in the atmosphere or ocean in those early days.
Predation was then born. Photosynthesis may have begun 3. Bacteria are true photosynthesizers that fix carbon from captured sunlight. Archaeans cannot fix carbon via sunlight capture , so are not photosynthesizers, even those that capture photons. The scientific consensus today is that a respiration cycle was modified, and a cytochrome in a respiration system was used for capturing sunlight.
Intermediate stages have been hypothesized, including the cytochrome using a pigment to create a shield to absorb ultraviolet light, or that the pigment was part of an infrared sensor for locating volcanic vents. But whatever the case was, the conversion of a respiration system into a photosynthetic system is considered to have only happened once , and all photosynthesizers descended from that original innovation.
Metals used by biological processes can donate electrons, unlike those other elements that primarily seek them to complete their shells. Those metals used by life are isolated in molecular cages called porphyrins. The cycles that capture energy photosynthesis or chemosynthesis or produce it fermentation or respiration generally have many steps in them, and some cycles can run backwards, such as the Krebs cycle.
The respiration and photosynthesis cycles in complex organisms have been the focus of a great deal of scientific effort, and cyclic diagrams 1 , 2 can provide helpful portrayals of how cycles work.
Photosynthesis has several cycles in it, and Nob el Prizes were awarded to the scientists who helped describe the cycles. Below is a diagram of a chlorophyll molecule. Those molecules initiate photosynthesis by trapping photons. The wavelengths that plant chlorophyll does not absorb well are in the green range, which is why plants are green.
Some photosynthetic bacteria absorb green light, so the bacteria appear purple , and there are many similar variations among bacteria.
Those initial higher electron orbits from photon capture are not stable and would soon collapse back to their lower levels and emit light again, defeating the process, but in less than a trillionth of a second the electron is stripped from the capturing molecule and put into another molecule with a more stable orbit.
Separating protons from electrons via chemical reactions, and then using their resultant electrical potential to drive mechanical processes, is how life works. Early photosynthetic organisms used the energy of captured photons to strip electrons from various chemicals.
Hydrogen sulfide was an early electron donor. In the early days of photosynthetic life, there was no atmospheric oxygen. Oxygen, as reactive as it is, was deadly to those early bacteria and archaea, damaging their molecules through oxidization.
The dates are c ontroversial, but it appears that after hundreds of millions of years of using various molecules as electron donors for photosynthesis, cyanobacteria began to split water to get the donor electron, and oxygen was the waste byproduct. Cyanobacterial colonies are dated to as early as 2. Those cyanobacterial colonies formed the first fossils in the geologic record, called stromatolites. At Shark Bay in Australia and some other places the water is too saline to support animals that can eat cyanobacteria, so stromatolites still exist and give us a glimpse into early life on Earth.
Oxygenic photosynthesis uses two systems for capturing photons. The second one called Photosystem I because it was discovered before Photosystem II uses captured photon energy to add an electron to captured carbon dioxide to help transform it into a sugar. Below is a diagram of the Calvin cycle.
More than two bya, and maybe more than three bya, cyanobacteria used both, and a miraculous instance of innovation tied them together. Some manganese atoms were then used to strip electrons from water. Although the issue is still controversial regarding when it happened and how, that instance of cyanobacteria's using manganese to strip electrons from water is responsible for oxygenic photosynthesis.
It seems that some enzymes that use manganese may have been "drafted" into forming the manganese cluster responsible for splitting water in oxygenic photosynthesis.
Oxygen is a waste product of that innovative ATP factory. Click on image to enlarge. About the time that the continents began to grow and plate tectonics began, Earth produced its first known glaciers, between 3. It might have been an ice age or merely some mountain glaciation. Because the evidence is relatively thin, there is also controversy about the extent of Earth's ice ages. But life may well have been involved, particularly oxygenic photosynthesis, and it was almost certainly involved in Earth's first great ice age, which may have been a Snowball Earth episode, and some pertinent dynamics follow.
The ancient carbon cycle included volcanoes spewing a number of gases into the atmosphere, including hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen, but carbon dioxide was particularly important. When the continents began forming, carbon dioxide was removed from the atmosphere via water capturing it, falling onto the land masses as carbonic acid , the carbon became combined into calcium carbonate, and plate tectonics subducted the calcium carbonate in the ocean sediments into the crust, which was again released as carbon dioxide in volcanoes.
When cyanobacteria began using water in photosynthesis, carbon was captured and oxygen released, which began the oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere. But the process may have not always been a story of continually increasing atmospheric oxygen. There may have been wild swings.
Although the process is indirect, oxygen levels are influenced by the balance of carbon and other elements being buried in ocean sediments. If carbon is buried in sediments faster than it is introduced to the atmosphere, oxygen levels will increase. Pyrite is comprised of iron and sulfur, but in the presence of oxygen, pyrite's iron combines with oxygen and becomes iron oxide, also known as rust and the sulfur forms sulfuric acid. Pyrite burial may have acted as the dominant oxygen source before carbon burial did.
The dissolved iron was oxidized from a soluble form to an insoluble one, which then precipitated out of the oceans in those vivid red the color of rust layers that we see today and are called banded iron formations "BIFs" , which became an oxygen sink and kept atmospheric oxygen low. Far less ore needs to be melted to get an equivalent amount of iron. BIFs are the source of virtually all iron ore that humans have mined. Life processes almost certainly performed the initial work of refining iron, and humans easily finished the job billions of years later.
Copper was not refined by life processes, and copper ore takes twice as much energy to refine as iron ore does. When BIF deposition ended about 2. The high oxygen levels may have turned pyrite on the continents into acid, which increased erosion, flooded essential nutrients, particularly phosphorus, into the oceans, and would have facilitated a huge bloom in the oceans.
The first was a positive excursion more carbon than expected , and the second was negative. Scientists are still trying to determine what caused them. Beginning a little less than 2. Atmo spheric oxygen prevented Earth from losing its water as Venus and Mars did, which saved all life on Earth.
An atmosp here of as little as two percent oxygen may have been adequate to form the ozone layer, and that level was likely first attained during the first GOE. Ultraviolet light carries more energy than visible light and breaks covalent and other bonds and wreaks biological havoc , particularly to DNA and RNA. Ultraviolet light damage presented a formidable evolutionary hurdle, and proteins and enzymes that assist cellular division are like those that arose to repair damaged DNA.
During the Permian-Triassic extinction event , which was the greatest extinction event yet known, there is evidence that the ozone layer was depleted and ultraviolet light damaged photosynthesizing organisms that formed the base of the food chains.
From the formation of stromatolites to mass extinction events, ultraviolet light has played a role. Today's prevailing hypothesis is that an archaean enveloped a bacterium, either by predation or colonization, and they entered into a symbiotic relationship. That purple color is probably because the original enveloped bacterium that led to the first mitochondrion was purple. That first mitochondrion became, according to the most restricted definition , the first organelle.
Cells with organelles are called eukaryotes , and today they are generally thought to have descended from that instance when a hydrogen-eating archaean enveloped a hydrogen-producing bacterium.
That animation of ATP Synthase in action depicts a typical event in life forms - the generation of energy as protons cross a membrane - which in that instance makes the turbine rotate that manufactures ATP. For prokaryotes , the cellular membrane is their only one and the site of the process that fuels their lives.
If the diameter of a spherical bacterium is doubled, its surface area increases four times, but its volume increases eight times, and the disparity between surface area and volume increases as the diameter does. That means that with increasing size comes slower metabolism, so the cell becomes sluggish. Imagine a grown man trying to live on the calories that he ingested when he was an infant. He would quickly starve to death or have to hibernate each day.
Prokaryotic cells are limited in size because their energy production only takes place at their cellular membranes. The average eukaryotic cell has more than 10 thousand times the mass of the average prokaryotic cell, and the largest eukaryotic cells have hundreds of thousands of times the mass or around a trillion times for ostrich eggs, for instance, which exist as single-cells when formed.
Where an organism has the greatest energy needs, such as in muscle and nerve cells, the greatest numbers of mitochondria are found. In a typical animal cell, dotted with hundreds of mitochondria, a single mitochondrion is the size of the prokaryote that became the mitochondrion, and is representative of prokaryote size in general.
That increased surface area to generate ATP allowed eukaryotic cells to grow large and complex. There are quintillions a million trillion of those ATP Synthase motors in a human body, spinning at up to hundreds of revolutions per second, generating ATP molecules. The new mode of energy production presented various challenges, but it allowed life to become large and complex.
Size is important, at the cellular level as well as the organism level. Below is a diagram of a typical plant cell. The primary adv antage that mitochondria provided was not only increased surface area for reactions, but unlike other organelles that began as bacteria such as hydrogenosomes , mitochondria retained some of their DNA. Mitochondria move around inside the cells and provide energy where it is needed. Perhaps a few hundred million years after the first mitochondrion appeared, as the oceanic oxygen content, at least on the surface, increased as a result of oxygenic photosynthesis, those complex cells learned to use oxygen instead of hydrogen.
It is difficult to overstate the importance of learning to use oxygen in respiration, called aerobic respiration. Before the appearance of aerobic respiration, life generated energy via anaerobic respiration and fermentation.
Because oxygen is in second place for creating the most energetic reactions , aerobic respiration generates, on average, about 15 times as many ATP molecules per cycle as fermentation and anaerobic respiration do although some types of anaerobic respiration can get four times the typical ATP yield. At minimum, nothing could have flown, and any animal life that might have evolved would have never left the oceans because the atmosphere would not have been breathable.
Whether the first animals needed oxygen at all is controversial. Compl ex life means, by definition, that it has many parts and they move. Complex life needs energy to run its many moving parts. For various reasons that are far from settled among scientists, eukaryotes did not immediately rise to dominance on Earth but were on a fairly even footing with prokaryotes for more than a billion years.
That situation was at least partially related to continental configurations and oceanic currents. Without the Moon, Earth could have up to 90 o changes in its axis of rotation instead of the 22 o -to Earth would have had mass-extinction effects on those portions, and the rest of the biosphere would have been extremely challenged to survive.
Without that oxygenation, there would be little life on the ocean floor or much below the surface; almost the entire global ocean would be lifeless. Before the GOE , this was certainly the case, but relatively recent hypotheses make the case that the oceans were anoxic for more than a billion years after the GOE began, largely because of the continental configurations and geophysical and geochemical processes. Pangaea formed about mya, but it was not the only supercontinent; it was just the only one existing during the eon of complex life.
One called Rodinia may have existed one bya and did not break up until mya and reformed into another supercontinent, Pannotia , mya, which did not break up until mya , and there is a hypothesized earlier one called Columbia that existed two bya. There is also a hypothesis that all continental mass was contained in one supercontinent that lasted from 2.
When the total continental land mass was small or combined into a supercontinent, there was no land to divert that diffusion of warm water toward the poles, which results in currents. During those times, the global ocean became one big, calm lake, with no currents of significance. Those oceans are called Canfield Oceans today, and they would have been anoxic; the oxygenated surface waters would not have been drawn by currents to the ocean floor, and the oceans were certainly anoxic before the GOE.
The interplay of those many interacting dynamics can be incredibly complex and lead to the multitude of hypotheses posited to explain those ancient events, but a leading hypothesis today is that a combination of factors, including supercontinents, variations in volcanic output, Canfield Oceans, and ice ages prevented eukaryotic life from gaining ecosystem dominance until the waning of the second Snowball Earth event, which was the greatest series of glaciations that Earth has yet experienced.
It is known today as the Cryogenian Period , which ended about mya. All animals, except for some tiny ones in anoxic environments , use aerobic respiration today, and early animals multicellular heterotrophs , which are called metazoans today may have also used aerobic respiration.
Before the rise of eukaryotes, the dominant life forms, bacteria and archaea, had many chemical pathways to generate energy as they farmed that potential electron energy from a myriad of substances, such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur, iron, hydrogen, ammonia, and manganese , and photosynthesizers got their donor electrons from hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, arsenate , nitrite , and other chemicals.
If there is potential energy in electron bonds, bacteria and archaea will often find ways to harvest it. Many archaean and bacterial species thrive in harsh environments that would quickly kill any complex life, and those hardy organisms are called extremophiles. In harsh environments, those organisms can go dormant for millennia and perhaps longer , waiting for appropriate conditions usually related to available energy.
In some environments, it can take a hundred years for a cell to divide. The conventional view has long been that the GOE was a microbe holocaust , as most anaerobic microbes died from oxygen damage. However, there is little evidence for a holocaust. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels have seesawed ever since the beginning of the eon of complex life and probably earlier. For instance, the coal beds that humanity is mining and burning with such abandon today were created because trees produced lignin that allowed them to grow tall, and it took about million years for a fungus to learn how to break lignin down, and like the other big events, that trick was probably only learned once.
That time is known as the Carboniferous Period , and all of that carbon sequestered in Earth led to skyrocketing oxygen levels, the highest that Earth has yet seen.
Over the billions of years since oxygenic respiration began , aerobes have consumed The times between 1. About 1 bya, stromatolites began to decline and microbial photosynthesizers began to evolve spines , probably due to predation pressure from protists , which are eukaryotes.
Eating stromatolites may reflect the first instance of grazing , although grazing is really just a form of predation. The difference between grazing and predation is the prey. If the prey is an autotroph it fixes its own carbon, by using energy from either sunlight capture or harvesting the energy potential of inorganic chemicals , it is called grazing, and if the prey got its carbon from eating autotrophs such creatures are called heterotrophs , then it is called predation.
There are other categories of life-form consumption, such as parasitism and detritivory eating dead organisms , and there are many instances of symbiosis. For complex life, the symbiosis between the mitochondrion and its cellular host was the most important one ever. The first algae fossils are from about 1. Below is the general outline of the tree of life today, in which bacteria and archaea combined to make eukaryotic cells, and in which the bacterium enveloped into a protist to make plants, and all complex life developed from protists.
Since mitochondria are the energy generation centers in eukaryotic cells some eukaryotes lost their mitochondria , usually because the mitochondria evolved into other organelles such as mitosomes and hydrogenosomes , they present similar issues related to how industrialized humanity generates energy today. Power plants have pollution issues and can explode and create environmental catastrophes such as what happened at Chernobyl and Fukushima. A free radical is an atom, molecule, or ion with an unpaired valence electron or an unfilled shell, and thus seeks to capture an electron.
The electron transport chain used to create ATP in a mitochondrion leaks electrons, which creates free radicals, which will take that electron from wherever they can get it. Aerobic respiration creates some of the most dangerous free radicals, particularly the hydroxyl radical.
The more hydroxyl radicals created, the more damage inflicted on neighboring molecules. Another free radical created by that electron leakage is superoxide , which can be neutralized by antioxidants , but there is no avoiding the damage produced by the hydroxyl radical.
Strong exemplars of efficiency in the EU asylum context are applying new management tools to their systems to address fluctuations in intake, supported by the UNHCR and the European Asylum Support Office EASO , which have become centres of expertise in the sharing of best practices.
EASO also provides operational assistance, such as interviews, quality assurance and other support to EU member states. Key best practices are provided below:. In France, the municipality receiving the claim identifies the stream.
In Sweden, teams of dedicated case workers triage the files into streams prior to sending notices to claimants to appear. In the UK, files are triaged following the screening interview. Where interviews are required clients and counsel are convened according to the readiness of the file and the scheduling strategy, which takes into account the assigned stream.
For example, Sweden sends notices one month in advance, based on the availability of counsel using an electronic availability calendar and consequently there are very few requests for date changes. Most systems operate under the premise that it is the responsibility of the claimant and counsel lawyer or other to be available or to find a replacement counsel that can be present.
All countries examined have an interview process in an informal setting focused on determining the basis of claim, often with case specific research and submissions occurring afterwards. Several countries use specialized staff for different steps in the decision-making process, meaning that interviewers are not always decision makers. Some use regional country specialists in response to short-term surges but reported that case type specialists for particular vulnerable groups provide longer term efficiency benefits.
Most countries have detailed weekly targets based on case types and streams, with higher targets for straightforward cases and lower targets for complex cases. In Germany, during the crisis, straightforward cases and large families were prioritized with higher targets. In the UK, a dedicated casework team is testing new ways of working to improve efficiency.
In all countries studied there is a decision review process with a second decision maker, a senior decision maker or a supervisor. Complex cases and those with no appeal rights must also be signed off by a senior case worker. In Germany, the U. In Sweden, the interviewer makes a recommendation to a decision maker, who oversees a team of interviewers.
Interpreters participate in the interviews in person, by video conference or by phone. In Germany, interpreters are assigned based on the language that claimants can understand to avoid the need for rare language services. Individuals may be supported by a lawyer or another representative. In Sweden and the Netherlands, free legal assistance is provided to claimants under a duty counsel model in most instances.
Interestingly, in Sweden cases streamed to positive decision making are not represented. The Netherlands has a notable appeal-like step integrated into the eight-day decision-making process, whereby they work collaboratively with counsel to finalize draft negative decisions, which reduces formal appeals and significantly improved efficiency of the overall process. In an effort to maximize productivity, tools such as checklists are provided to interviewers and decision makers to help them focus on the factors required to make a decision.
Most countries have templates for interview notes and decisions. The UK has a notable assisted decision-making tool, which is a digital decision tree to support consistency while allowing for case precision where relevant. European countries provide summaries and findings on country conditions, and instructions on the aspects for decision makers to address based on the type of refugee claim and the countries involved.
Other ministries of government are responsible for either preparing such as the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the Netherlands or providing input to reports on major intake countries. Germany prepares concise reports. Country of Origin information is made publicly available, with the exception of Germany. All countries studied evaluate the quality of asylum decisions on an ongoing basis through formal quality assurance programs.
Quality assurance systems include decisional review models at the operational level, in addition to quality assessment units responsible for random post-decision reviews and reporting to management. Quality control is an internal function of each organisation, with the exception of France, which employs the UNHCR on contract to evaluate the quality of interviews, research and decisions, with the findings made public.
Specialized quality units within organizations are typically responsible for the creation of standards, guidelines, training, regular auditing of decisions, timely identification of issues, as well as monitoring trends.
In the Netherlands, randomly selected cases are reviewed weekly. In the UK, operational assurance is directed by executive and risk assurance committees, as well as a governance board. At the operational level, there are first line checks and performance monitoring, while an independent compliance team assesses a small percentage of random cases and conducts targeted reviews. In Germany, a team also reviews a small percentage of cases monthly and addresses complaints.
The UK, the U. Of the countries reviewed all have appeal processes for rejected claimants under justice ministries, separate from the decision-making organization. In most countries, appeals are heard by an administrative law court, often a specialized migration chamber with immigration law experts.
In general refugee claims that are determined to be manifestly unfounded do not have a right of appeal. The Netherlands allows one-week for appeal applications to support quick removals and decisions are provided in four weeks. Most appeal bodies studied have the authority to substitute decisions. Judicial review is also generally available to claimants following the appeal process.
The UK has a notable process to encourage resolution of claims without litigation in an effort to bring down the percentage of cases that proceed to judicial review. Pre-Action Protocol letters are exchanged between the claimant and government. Removals are a challenge for all countries. To complement forced removals all countries examined have voluntary or assisted return programs usually within asylum organizations to encourage departures.
Information to claimants about assisted return is shared throughout the asylum claim process. Most countries offer assistance with return travel and reintegration in home countries including employment and training , and many have tailored projects with the International Organization for Migration.
The Netherlands funds its program through its foreign aid program, with grants and contributions available to NGOs, which provide practical reintegration assistance to failed claimants. The Netherlands actively manages the removal of failed claimants with automatic interviews every six weeks tied to ongoing social support. In France approximately 4, persons returned voluntarily in and 1, persons benefited from some kind of assistance.
Countries noted that these programs are a cost effective means for governments to support reintegration of failed claimants, as well as helping to meet humanitarian objectives, particularly where other return measures have proven inadequate in increasing compliance with departure.
As most countries have integrated systems within one larger agency, there is flexibility to reallocate staff as needed. In Sweden and the U. While the Netherlands has a decentralized system decision makers are regularly reallocated based on caseload.
To cope with the crisis Sweden, Germany and the Netherlands hired new permanent and temporary staff from a wide range of backgrounds through agencies, mainly to assist with registration and screening interviews and other support functions. Germany also seconded thousands of officials from other federal organizations and hired additional local staff.
The UK and the Netherlands both deployed mobile decision-maker teams during the crisis and Germany also set up centralized decision-making hubs to support arrival centres. In Sweden, when refugee claims decreased substantially in , resources were moved from the front end intake and first-level decisions to later stages in processing re-assessment of the temporary status permits.
With respect to international resettlement processing, most countries send asylum decision makers on refugee resettlement missions given the similar nature of work between in-country asylum and overseas protection. All countries recognize the critical role of the decision maker and focus on the recruitment of the right individual based on key competencies.
France and Sweden recruit individuals with international experience. In Sweden personality tests are also used and problem-solving capacity is evaluated. In the Netherlands most case workers are trained lawyers. The UK job poster emphasizes the requirement to meet performance targets. Training for new decision makers varies from 5 to 16 weeks and occurs online, in the classroom and through practical exercises. All countries cover essentially the same subject matter: Germany has a training centre delivered in multiple locations and a large pool of trainers to address the high demand.
During the crisis the training program was reduced, re-focused on training to specific skills such as interviewing or country specialization. Follow-up training was provided by Germany as well as quality standards. Most countries have a one year probation period at which point the decision maker is considered to be fully trained. Retention of highly skilled decision makers is a universal challenge with regular staff turnover, usually every three years.
The UK is beginning a new developmental program to improve recruitment and retention. The Independent Reviewer engaged with a broad range of stakeholders who shared their insight into the current functioning of the system from the perspectives of users, advocates and specialists in the asylum field. Stakeholders were forthcoming with ideas, offering proposals for efficiencies and opportunities for improvements. While there was not consensus on all issues, stakeholders universally stressed the importance of the fairness of the system.
Equally, stakeholders raised concerns related to policy and legislation that are not summarized here as these considerations were outside of the scope of this Review.
In addition to the focussed consultations undertaken by the Independent Reviewer, the Review had access to the results of IRCC stakeholder consultations that were held in July Across the themes of this Review, stakeholders provided valuable input which is summarized below.
Stakeholders universally support a fast system that ensures fairness to the claimant. System inefficiencies amongst the key organizations are viewed as undermining this goal. Concerns were raised about the lack of overall management of the system, and the need for a more coherent process. Clients and their cases suffer from the unnecessary and unclear hand-offs between organizations and the delays which result.
Some stakeholders wish to see decision making aligned in a single, expert organization, including Humanitarian and Compassionate decisions, Pre-Removal Risk Assessments and status decisions pertaining to stateless persons in order to ensure consistency of decision making and client treatment in relation to these similar decisions. There is a desire to increase accountability of the system with a reporting and oversight mechanism, such as an ombudsman or inspector that could monitor asylum processes and report to Parliament.
Stakeholders support the need for increased flexibility in the system in keeping with the principles of natural justice and without sacrificing fairness. Many stakeholders encouraged moving away from rules-based processes such as rigid timelines that do not reflect case complexity, so as to be as informal as possible in resolving cases. For example, look to minimizing the number of steps clients need to take in the process and eliminate redundancy.
Simple technology solutions were recommended to speed up processing, such as e-mail to communicate with counsel and claimants, and electronic filing. Many suggested that tight timelines for the lodging of the Basis of Claim and for hearings lead to postponements. Plain language in all communications with claimants was also suggested to improve understanding of the process. A pre- and post-reform comparison was recommended to determine what aspects of the process are now taking longer than previously.
The need for consistent, stable funding for legal aid across the country was stressed. It was reinforced that claimants are screened for legal aid through both means and merit-based tests.
Early access to work permits could decrease costs of means tested legal aid. To address other issues contributing to poor representation, such as inadequate regulation and training, confidentiality and ineffective complaints processes are needed in the system.
A quality assurance mechanism tied to funding was suggested to increase public accountability on legal aid costs. Stakeholders agreed that there should be a consistent process wherever a claim is made whether at the port or inland. The claimant process was often viewed as necessitating claimants and counsel to submit the maximum amount of information to ensure that any relevant issue that may arise in a hearing is not inadvertently missed.
This approach has significant costs and would be better corrected by clarifying substantive issues prior to the hearing or as early as possible in the claim process. Other specific suggestions included:. There was a widespread call for more expedited processing and short hearings, open to all claimants regardless of country of origin. The system should provide more flexibility to triage straightforward decisions that can be made quickly on clearly positive cases that do not require hearings.
A triage process prior to scheduling, focused on the defining issue s , was recommended to identify expedited cases and to free adjudicative resources for more complex cases. Many suggested using administrative support models to recommend positive cases to decision makers. This would both lower costs and increase productivity.
Case streaming by country of origin, unaccompanied minors, single issues, persons in detention or unique claimant circumstances, expedited groups, and Ministerial interventions was raised as a useful tool to better manage caseload. Several experts in the field of asylum adjudication spoke candidly to the Review of the opportunities to improve the quality and productivity of decision makers. Two key themes emerged with respect to decision making.
First, improve consistency and speed. Second, hearings should be as informal as possible, as overly strict rules inhibit the ability of claimants to give spontaneous accounts of their experiences. Pre-hearings with counsel were also widely recommended. Several proposals were provided to streamline processes following the first protection decision, notably, that Refugee Appeal Division should make final decisions and not return cases to the Refugee Protection Division.
Priority processing at the Refugee Appeal Division was also proposed. To assist the Refugee Protection Division, broader use of Refugee Appeal Division jurisprudential guidelines were suggested, particularly in relation to state protection and internal flight alternatives. The goal for the appeal should be for the Federal Court to fully defer to the competency of the Refugee Appeal Division, reducing judicial review to questions of law.
To encourage the return of persons to their countries of origin with dignity and anonymity, a voluntary returns program was recommended as a more effective approach than forced removal.
In lieu of forced return, an independent office could facilitate the return of refused claimants to their country. This could be offered as in-kind assistance for housing, or livelihood training or through discretionary payments for transportation and resettlement.
Stakeholders recommended streamlining the permanent residence application process with the claim process to improve efficiency. All stakeholders agreed there should be sufficient funding to process claims on a timely basis. A mechanism to provide extra resources for increased claims or backlogs was strongly recommended. To support processing efficiencies stakeholders emphasized that maintaining a full complement of available decision makers and interpreters at all times must be a priority to eliminate capacity shortfalls.
Well-trained and supported decision makers was highlighted as the essential component of an effective system and that recruitment is critical. While the interests of stakeholders are wide-ranging there is a thread of consensus that is instructive. From discussions with stakeholders it is clear that there are many opportunities to make improvements to the overall functioning and efficiency of the system and that external contributors such as lawyers and NGOs should be part of the considerations of any revised approaches to asylum adjudication.
On the front-end of the system, stakeholders support a better process for claim intake that would reduce duplication and improve the collection of information, making better use of automation to assist the process. For decision making, stakeholders have a strong interest in ensuring that case resolution is tailored to the case, such as through better triage, informal resolution of issues and narrowing of issues in advance of hearing the claimant.
The ideas of stakeholders are driven by procedural fairness interests of the claimants who bear the weight of the formality of the process and equally by NGOs and legal aid which bear part of the cost of this formality. There is a common interest in fairness, accountability and results which resonate in this Review.
This Review has considered many of these practical suggestions in developing the recommendations that follow. A key observation arising out of consultations with IRB, IRCC, CBSA and stakeholders is that the efficiency of the asylum system in Canada has suffered as a result of the lack of active, coherent and accountable management across the entire continuum of its activities.
In the absence of such management decisions for different components of the system are being made without due regard for their impact on other parts of the system — including the protection decision-making process. Productivity and efficiency of the system as a whole suffers as a result. Hence a system management approach is essential. Within this approach different governance options are possible, ranging from a more efficient and coordinated system to one that is integrated largely into one organizational structure.
However, there are some common parameters and principles that provide the essential framework for the overall approach, and irrespective of the option for the end state, this Report recommends that a number of systems improvement. Such a programme of action would result in necessary short-term improvements, while also paving the way for more meaningful, systemic transformation. In other immigration and refugee programs, the government has levers to control access through selection processes and screening tools.
Apart from visas and travel authorities, there are few asylum-specific levers that control access to protection — Canada has a legal obligation to consider all eligible claims made in Canada seeking protection on a case-by-case basis. Decades of experience demonstrates that regardless of the source of asylum spikes, there are periods when asylum demand outstrips the capability of the system to respond. A managed system will be helpful in addressing these cycles, but contingencies will also be needed to get out of the cycle of spikes being followed by the accrual of backlogs and delayed decision making.
Within a systems management paradigm, it is important to draw a distinction between managing caseload across the asylum system, and managing decision making on individual cases. For the latter, natural justice and international and Canadian legal norms provide an essential framework.
Managing caseload relates to how decisions are made to manage, prioritize and stream volumes of cases across the asylum system. Strategic caseload management presupposes a governance structure providing accountability — ultimately to Parliament for all component parts of the system, against a coherent plan.
The system requires collective governance that would permit coherent and strategic management of asylum flows. The independence of decision making on individual cases is essential, in accordance with the principles of natural justice, and respecting international and Canadian norms.
The independence of a quasi-judicial administrative tribunal is a model for protecting the independence of decision making that rests at one end of the spectrum relative to international practice.
However, and as underscored in the analysis of other international models, maintaining this unique model is not essential for preserving decision-making independence. Irrespective of the organizational model, there are management practices that can be pursued in support of decision makers related to how cases and decisions are triaged, streamed and prepared. In considering options for models that would encourage a systems management approach, without sacrificing independence of decision making, some basic parameters and principles have framed the recommendations:.
Bearing in mind the above parameters and principles, within a management paradigm, steps can be taken to put in place foundational measures. First a reset of governance including a reset of the management approach and funding of the system. From this foundation transformative change can be built, which is addressed in this chapter. Horizontal trilateral governance requires exceptional commitment by all parties to maintain and has proven frail when tested over time.
When discrete parts of the system are performing poorly, the impact is felt across all the partner organizations. Results frameworks for the asylum program require both vertical and horizontal governance to be effective, target-focussed and functioning as a whole system.
Resource allocation for asylum is also not managed as a system. Departments receive a fixed level of funding for asylum processing and are accountable individually on the management of those funds. The majority of planning and negotiations that occur take place on an ad hoc basis when new incremental resource requests are made; for example, in relation to visa policy changes or during a spike in claims as in the current situation of irregular migration along the U.
There are no formal mechanisms to strategically focus or shift resources between departments from different activities in response to demand, if warranted.
In day-to-day operations, each department internally allocates resources towards or away from asylum processing as deemed appropriate in each organization. Given that each department has numerous priorities to balance, resources for asylum processing may be in competition with other programs. While there may be notional allocations for asylum within any given department, given that these resources are not fenced or constrained, they can be moved to meet other operational needs without consideration or accounting to the system as a whole.
Over time, what was originally in the organizational budgets may become unknown. Lastly, there are few mechanisms to easily access contingency. During a spike in intake, organizations are required to internally reallocate resources.
Organizations, with the exception of the CBSA which has a two-year carry forward, do not have the ability to move resources from one year to the next. There is also no established mechanism to easily access revisions to permanent funding or contingency funding without the unwelcomed process of developing proposals for government deliberation.
Canada Border Services Agency CBSA was created in to provide integrated border services, and incorporated responsibilities from the customs and immigration departments at the time.
CBSA plays an integral role in asylum processing at ports of entry, security screening of cases, intervening in serious cases and ensuring timely removal of failed claimants from Canada. An analysis of the expenditures of the Agency since the reforms shows that under current horizontal accountability the asylum system is competing for resources with the broader priorities of the Agency.
In the case of removals output is significantly below pre-reform levels. An annual plan should be tabled to Parliament by the Minister of Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship in consultation with the Minister of Public Safety and the Minister of Justice to report annually on the system as a whole. To achieve a systems management approach a more robust model for governance is needed that would establish a trilateral governance to engage in system-wide planning, allowing opportunities for all contributing partners to develop plans to meet the dynamic needs of the overall system.
In such a model, a Management Board would undertake a system forecast for intake, set processing priorities, establish resource levels, and formalise a three-year plan annually for consideration by the Ministers and Parliament. This would complement the current multi-year immigration levels plan. A target and a range is established for each category and for the plan overall, and if required, additional resources are sought to meet the objectives of the plan.
While the plan will continue to be tabled annually, in for the first time, a multiyear levels plan was presented. The target for the next three years is now earmarked in the fiscal framework.
Leveraging the knowledge and foresight of the Management Board, the Minister should be enabled to provide direction on the administration of the workload of all organizations, including the IRB, IRCC and CBSA, and set operational performance expectations without being perceived as influencing or directing outcomes on protection or enforcement cases.
This could be achieved transparently through a mandate letter from the Minister to all deputy heads or via the Clerk to deputy heads through alignment of performance management agreements or letters of expectations. The Asylum System Management Board should develop productivity measures across the asylum system. Productivity of the system has not been stable or predictable and has undermined confidence in further resourcing of the system. Uneven productivity rates coupled with changing intake has rendered it challenging to establish core cost drivers.
Establishing a baseline for performance is critical to achieve predictability. Costing assumptions and methodologies of all partners need transparency so that all actors in the system understand and appreciate resource trade-offs. Departments should collectively determine measures for productivity which are reported upon and reviewed on a quarterly basis. Develop an annual asylum budget that is reset each year based on forecasted intake and productivity targets set by the Asylum System Management Board.
While the Minister of IRCC remains responsible for the asylum system, ultimately the deputy head of each organization is responsible for presenting funding requests and are accountable for expenditures.
It is evident departments are consulted for each incremental request for funding, however there lacks a central authority responsible for taking a horizontal approach to funding and to appropriately consider potential trade-offs, including shifting resources between departments where warranted.
While central agencies can play this role to an extent, often intervention occurs too late in the process to effectively address systemic issues. To address this, departments should immediately begin laying the foundations to develop an annual asylum budget within the Asylum System Management Board. One annual budget should be presented for the whole system that includes a forecast of the next two years for planning purposes. The level of funding would be reset each year based on the forecasted intake for the next year and the productivity targets set by the Asylum System Management Board.
It is recommended that an annual plan is put in place starting in with a new ongoing baseline, and a draft budget should be developed for The asylum budget should form a key component of the annual asylum plan which would be tabled in Parliament by the Minister of IRCC at the same time as the annual multiyear immigration levels plan.
To support an asylum budget all departments should review and determine a mechanism to track expenditures. The horizontal evaluation brought to light that not all departments were able to track expenditures related to asylum processing pre For example, while one of the intentions of the horizontal evaluation was to present the per unit cost pre and post reforms, the evaluation was only able to compare the average cost of support services and not the cost of processing as not all departments systematically track costs related to asylum system and are not able to accurately track and present all of their program related expenditures.
Notably, this Review has gathered —for the first time — an accounting of the full expenditures for all partners for asylum processing over time. In order to understand the full cost of asylum processing and to establish a true baseline going forward, systems are needed to ensure that expenditures and resources are fully tracked.
Departments should immediately review how expenditures are captured such as through a program assessment and systematically track resources going forward in a consistent manner. Given that the government cannot stop processing asylum claims once capacity is reached it is paramount that a system-wide approach is taken to manage resources and provide flexibility to adjust funding where warranted.
The Asylum System Management Board should work with central agencies to immediately develop a system-wide flexible funding model. This model would be supported by robust tools for forecasting, costing and tracking of expenditures. This would allow quarterly updates of the forecasted intake and resource requirements to be presented and approved by the Management Board, allowing for in-year adjustments as necessary and provide greater ability to forecast large changes.
In terms of structure the Management Board should work with central agencies to develop an annual asylum budget with the asylum plan which is congruent with the current immigration levels plan.
This would help situate in-year plans and enable the earmarking of future year funding requirements. Specifically, funding should address processing estimates at the top end of the forecasted range and contingency funding would also be provided for activities over the top of the range e.
Both the funding from the target to the top of the range and the contingency could be placed in specific allotments in departmental reference levels. With updated and enhanced tools such as the cost per claimant, departments should be able to precisely determine the amount of funds needed per activity. For example, if the number of appeals processed exceed the pre-determined baseline, funding could be released based on the set amount of funding per appeal at the end of the year.
Conversely, if the number of appeals do not exceed the baseline, funds could either be reallocated by the Asylum System Management Board or be returned to the fiscal framework based on discussions with central agencies. Two viable options include placing funds in a special purpose allotment or frozen allotment.
Most critically, when funds are placed in a separate allotment, they would be required to be tracked separately and cannot be used towards other activities. While at first glance, another option would be to put all the funding, rather than the top range and contingency, into an allotment, this would severely constrain the ability of departments to cash manage.