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These units, because of cost, lack features to purify the nutrient solution, and adequately remove incontinuities, debris , and unwanted pathogens. I'm talking about things that lower intelligence, without causing physical damage, killing the person or, like lead poisoning, preventing them from developing fully. I understand that IQ testing is a lucrative business, but practice effects are a huge flaw and it's well acknowledged by test designers, no other discipline would accept something like that. Borinskaya 2 , A. In raft solution culture, plants are placed in a sheet of buoyant plastic that is floated on the surface of the nutrient solution. For example, although it has been argued that female choice for healthy males may aid in reducing the mutation load Whitlock and Agrawal , the strength of such reinforcement would also be diminished in human populations where suboptimal male phenotypes are hidden by various medical procedures.

Dr. Fuhrman’s Aggregate Nutrient Density Index (ANDI)

Defining Powerhouse Fruits and Vegetables: A Nutrient Density Approach

To accomplish true mist aeroponics a special pump had to be used which also presented scalability problems. Droplet-aeroponics was easier to manufacture, and as it produced comparable results to mist-aeroponics, Nutriculture began development of a scalable, easy to use droplet-aeroponic system. Through trials they found that aeroponics was ideal for plant propagation ; plants could be propagated without medium and could even be grown-on. In the end, Nutriculture acknowledged that better results could be achieved if the plant was propagated in their branded X-stream aeroponic propagator and moved on to a specially designed droplet-aeroponic growing system - the Amazon.

In , Stoner became the first person to market fresh aeroponically grown food to a national grocery chain. He was interviewed on NPR and discussed the importance of the water conservation features of aeroponics for both modern agriculture and space.

Plants were first taken into Earth's orbit in on two separate missions, Sputnik 4 and Discoverer 17 for a review of the first 30 years of plant growth in space, see Halstead and Scott Some of the earliest research results showed the effect of low gravity on the orientation of roots and shoots Halstead and Scott Subsequent research went on to investigate the effect of low gravity on plants at the organismic, cellular, and subcellular levels.

At the organismic level, for example, a variety of species, including pine , oat , mung bean , lettuce, cress , and Arabidopsis thaliana , showed decreased seedling, root, and shoot growth in low gravity, whereas lettuce grown on Cosmos showed the opposite effect of growth in space Halstead and Scott Mineral uptake seems also to be affected in plants grown in space.

For example, peas grown in space exhibited increased levels of phosphorus and potassium and decreased levels of the divalent cations calcium , magnesium , manganese , zinc , and iron Halstead and Scott ODC is derived from natural aquatic materials. All GAPS were housed in total darkness to eliminate light as an experiment variable.

The NASA experiment was to study only the benefits of the biocontrol. NASA's experiments aboard the MIR space station and shuttle confirmed that ODC elicited increased germination rate, better sprouting, increased growth and natural plant disease mechanisms when applied to beans in an enclosed environment. ODC is now a standard for pesticide -free aeroponic growing and organic farming. Soil and hydroponics growers can benefit by incorporating ODC into their planting techniques.

In , Stoner received NASA funding to develop a high performance aeroponic system for earth and space. Stoner demonstrated that a dry bio-mass of lettuce can be significantly increased with aeroponics. NASA utilized numerous aeroponic advancements developed by Stoner. Due to this advancement we can use as a reference to space aeroponics.

The purpose of the research conducted was to identify and demonstrate technologies for high-performance plant growth in a variety of gravitational environments. A low-gravity environment, for example, poses the problems of effectively bringing water and other nutrients to the plants and effecting recovery of effluents. Food production in the low-gravity environment of space provides further challenges, such as minimization of water use, water handling, and system weight.

Food production on planetary bodies such as the Moon or Mars also requires dealing with a hypogravity environment. Because of the impacts to fluid dynamics in these various gravity environments, the nutrient delivery system has been a major focus in plant growth system optimization. There are a number of methods currently utilized both in low gravity and on Earth to deliver nutrients to plants. Substrate dependent methods include traditional soil cultivation, zeoponics, agar, and nutrient-loaded ion exchange resins.

In addition to substrate dependent cultivation, many methods using no soil have been developed such as nutrient film technique, ebb and flow, aeroponics, and many other variants. Many hydroponic systems can provide high plant performance but nutrient solution throughput is high, necessitating large water volumes and substantial recycling of solutions, and the control of the solution in hypogravity conditions is difficult at best.

Aeroponics, with its use of a hydro-atomized spray to deliver nutrients, minimizes water use, increases oxygenation of roots, and offers excellent plant growth, while at the same time approaching or bettering the low nutrient solution throughput of other systems developed to operate in low gravity. Furthermore, the absence of substrates simplifies planting and harvesting providing opportunities for automation , decreases the volume and weight of expendable materials, and eliminates a pathway for pathogen transmission.

These many advantages combined with the results of this research that prove the viability of aeroponics in microgravity makes aeroponics a logical choice for efficient food production in space. This advancements are very useful in space aeroponics.

This inflatable aeroponic system addresses the needs of subtopic The inflatable nature of our innovation makes it lightweight, allowing it to be deflated so it takes up less volume during transportation and storage. As a stationary aeroponic system, these existing high-mass units perform very well, but transporting and storing them can be problematic.

On Earth, these problems may hinder the economic feasibility of aeroponics for commercial growers. However, such problems become insurmountable obstacles for using these systems on long-duration space missions because of the high cost of payload volume and mass during launch and transit. The NASA efforts lead to developments of numerous advanced materials for aeroponics for earth and space.

Aeroponics possesses many characteristics that make it an effective and efficient means of growing plants. Plants grown using aeroponics spend The time spent without water allows the roots to capture oxygen more efficiently. Furthermore, the hydro-atomized mist also significantly contributes to the effective oxygenation of the roots.

The reduced volume of nutrient throughput results in reduced amounts of nutrients required for plant development. Another benefit of the reduced throughput, of major significance for space-based use, is the reduction in water volume used. This reduction in water volume throughput corresponds with a reduced buffer volume, both of which significantly lighten the weight needed to maintain plant growth. In addition, the volume of effluent from the plants is also reduced with aeroponics, reducing the amount of water that needs to be treated before reuse.

The relatively low solution volumes used in aeroponics, coupled with the minimal amount of time that the roots are exposed to the hydro-atomized mist, minimizes root-to-root contact and spread of pathogens between plants.

Aeroponics allows more control of the environment around the root zone, as, unlike other plant growth systems, the plant roots are not constantly surrounded by some medium as, for example, with hydroponics, where the roots are constantly immersed in water.

A variety of different nutrient solutions can be administered to the root zone using aeroponics without needing to flush out any solution or matrix in which the roots had previously been immersed. This elevated level of control would be useful when researching the effect of a varied regimen of nutrient application to the roots of a plant species of interest. In a similar manner, aeroponics allows a greater range of growth conditions than other nutrient delivery systems. The interval and duration of the nutrient spray, for example, can be very finely attuned to the needs of a specific plant species.

The aerial tissue can be subjected to a completely different environment from that of the roots. The design of an aeroponic system allows ease of working with the plants.

This results from the separation of the plants from each other, and the fact that the plants are suspended in air and the roots are not entrapped in any kind of matrix. Consequently, the harvesting of individual plants is quite simple and straightforward. Likewise, removal of any plant that may be infected with some type of pathogen is easily accomplished without risk of uprooting or contaminating nearby plants.

Aeroponic systems are more cost effective than other systems. Because of the reduced volume of solution throughput discussed above , less water and fewer nutrients are needed in the system at any given time compared to other nutrient delivery systems.

The need for substrates is also eliminated, as is the need for many moving parts. With aeroponics, the deleterious effects of seed stocks that are infected with pathogens can be minimized. As discussed above, this is due to the separation of the plants and the lack of shared growth matrix. In addition, due to the enclosed, controlled environment, aeroponics can be an ideal growth system in which to grow seed stocks that are pathogen-free.

The enclosing of the growth chamber, in addition to the isolation of the plants from each other discussed above, helps to both prevent initial contamination from pathogens introduced from the external environment and minimize the spread from one plant to others of any pathogens that may exist. Aeroponics is an improvement in artificial life support for non-damaging plant support, seed germination, environmental control and rapid unrestricted growth when compared with hydroponics and drip irrigation techniques that have been used for decades by traditional agriculturalists.

Other research includes enclosed loop system research at Ames Research Center , where scientists were studying methods of growing food crops in low gravity situations for future space colonization. In , Stoner was granted a patent for an organic disease control biocontrol technology that allows for pesticide-free natural growing in an aeroponic systems.

In , Ed Harwood, founder of AeroFarms, invented an aeroponic system that grows lettuces on micro fleece cloth. By using aeroponic technology the farm is able to produce and sell up to two million pounds of pesticide-free leafy greens per year. Aeroponic bio-pharming is used to grow pharmaceutical medicine inside of plants.

The technology allows for completed containment of allow effluents and by-products of biopharma crops to remain inside a closed-loop facility. Neil Reese applied aeroponics to grow genetically modified corn. According to Reese it is a historical feat to grow corn in an aeroponic apparatus for bio-massing. Using advanced aeroponics techniques to grow genetically modified corn Reese harvested full ears of corn, while containing the corn pollen and spent effluent water and preventing them from entering the environment.

Containment of these by-products ensures the environment remains safe from GMO contamination. Reese says, aeroponics offers the ability to make bio-pharming economically practical. In , the Institute of Biotechnology at Vietnam National University of Agriculture , in joint efforts with Stoner, established a postgraduate doctoral program in aeroponics. The university's Agrobiotech Research Center, under the direction of Professor Nguyen Quang Thach , is using aeroponic laboratories to advance Vietnam 's minituber potato production for certified seed potato production.

The historical significance for aeroponics is that it is the first time a nation has specifically called out for aeroponics to further an agricultural sector, stimulate farm economic goals, meet increased demands, improve food quality and increase production. The impact of aeroponics in Vietnam will be felt at the farm level. Aeroponic integration in Vietnam agriculture will begin by producing a low cost certified disease-free organic minitubers, which in turn will be supplied to local farmers for their field plantings of seed potatoes and commercial potatoes.

Potato farmers will benefit from aeroponics because their seed potatoes will be disease-free and grown without pesticides. Most importantly for the Vietnamese farmer, it will lower their cost of operation and increase their yields, says Thach.

Even better, they have data from young children through adults. Schooling in adolescence raises IQ scores. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, , Military recruits took the same IQ test at the age of The beauty of the study is that many recruits who had different school programs were tested simultaneously in the same year.

An association was identified between the performance in the TOL and the level of education: Consequently, cognitive ability, which may have a significant genetic component, appears to be less directly related to myopia and may be associated with myopia primarily through its impacts on level of education.

Considered in isolation both educational level and intelligence were correlated to myopic refraction. Would this have been chalked up to the environment in previous eras?

Might they be able to do a genetic study of adoptive parents and see how this contributes to the IQ of their adopted children? I have written elsewhere, and probably on Dr. If we could determine how much reduction in capacity had been achieved with a given gas mixture with a less g-loaded task such as choice reaction time, then this would allow using moderate difficulty questions to test very high abilities more accurately without having to validate extremely hard questions which are often even harder to write and to measure their difficulty accurately than they are to answer.

Whatever the efficiency of this N-back test, g loadings decrease after practice. In the present research two studies are used to investigate the relation between g loading of tests and practice test-retest and coaching active teaching effects. There is evidence that practice and coaching reduce the g-loadedness of a collection of tests.

The implications of these results for predictive validity, practical usability of the tests, the relevance of traditional intelligence taxonomies, and for future research are discussed. Should schoolteachers be getting more intelligent throughout their careers? I mean, if being taught is a Good Thing, is teaching a Good Thing too? Or might that apply only to people teaching clever students in e. Nearly one-half of all students retake the SAT I and a slightly larger proportion of females retest than males.

Results from retesting on the SAT I indi- cate that 4 percent of students find a score increase of or more points on the verbal or math tests and that, on average, higher-ability students take the SAT two or three times. Males retesting twice or three times averaged a score increase of Students who choose to retake the SAT I more than once may differ in meaningful ways from those who do not.

More test prep, plus taking the test two or three times, logically translates into higher scores. The same applies to IQ tests, in my opinion: Rick Rosner and I were friends in high school in Boulder, Colo. Cash-strapped public school systems place the highest-scoring kids in special programs that offer excellent education programs with the best teachers. IQ tests are meant to be given cold, so the primary way to do better on them is be familiar with the kinds of questions asked and how they are presented.

Find out what kind of test your kid will be given in school, and go online and download as many practice tests as you can. The same principles can be used to improve SAT scores, which universities place great importance on when considering college applications. The way to kick ass on the SAT is to practice like crazy. Take at least 30 practice tests.

Ideally more than that. Use official ones, because the ones from other companies are crap. Rick gave his daughter lots of practice SAT tests while she was still in middle school. She won a prestigious national scholarship awarded to just 30 students a year, providing winners with a full ride to the private high school of their choice. Jin Li, professor of education at Brown University https: Building and using a social network: The average grade point average GPA for these low-income students was 3.

Education was seen as the only way to a good life, conveying a clear sense that learning is nonquestionable and nonnego- tiable to them. If that did not lead to the desired results, then the child needed to work harder. Even for highly achieving students, their parents encouraged them to be even better, as the highest achieving student, Karen, shared: Our hypothesis was further confirmed that immigration to the United States does not decrease the cultural mandate and familial willingness to carry the mandate out Li, It would only help insofar as the difficulty kept increasing and probably has an upper limit.

I would say that anything that tried to improve intelligence is probably best designed to focus on a certain specific area, such as working memory, and seeing if that has transfer effects elsewhere.

Some things such as fitness do seem to improve memory, as the brain is a biological entity that uses oxygen like everything else in the body. In other words, are their [sic] conditions in a modern western society, in which people get dumber over time? Yes, it happens to entire societies. Simply import more stupid people, preferably by the tens of millions. In the British Museum I hoped to find some clue.

I worked there from nine till six, read every volume through,. I just kept getting older, and it got more difficult to see,. You sometimes win or lose, [you can look up the final line of this one ].

Just based on some kind of intuition, I believe that education does improve IQ as measured in IQ tests. To a lesser extent, but still firmly, I think education raises that what we commonly call intelligence. This is not to say that IQ of a given individual can be changed much.

Those, who have high IQ, will have high IQ in tests made decades later, and the score will not change very much, as is known. This is true, yet it has to be admitted that those, who score high in IQ tests, tend to learn new things, and therefore their IQ score is not unconnected to learning. It seems to be that education does raise the real intelligence, that is what we today mean by intelligence, which is not the same what people in the stone age would have to called intelligence related to the ability to stay alive.

And maybe we could kick Asian kids out of school after 10th or 11th grade to help pay for 13th through 15th grade classes for black kids, while further equalizing SAT scores? Philosophasters innocent of the arts become Masters of Arts, and those are made wise by order who are endowed with no wisdom, and have no qualifications for a degree save a desire for it. Theologasters, if they can but pay, have enough learning and to spare, and proceed to the very highest degrees.

Hence it comes that such a pack of vile buffoons, ignoramuses wandering in the twilight of learning, ghosts of clergymen, itinerant quacks, dolts, clods, asses, mere cattle …. And I wonder why the figure at the top compares IQ of blacks and whites. That belongs in another discussion. I wish someone would do a study of the effects of nootropics such as piracetam on TBI. These drugs anecdotally can help reverse damage from ischemia or hypoxia that can result from it. IQ scores are forced to fit a normal curve due to how the tests are constructed.

Thompson, Thank You for another thoughtful, well written, and evidence backed article. I have been a Natural Healer for decades with thousands of cases. The most valuable and lasting course of treatment is to get patients to replace bad habits with good ones. Then I examine and make the simple easy exercise a little more complicated. Every visit the easier habit is replaced with a slightly harder one. In time they are locked into daily this positive habit and then spontaneously start adding other better habits on their own.

Really dumb people become less dumb, average, then smart. This may take years for most people. Given, this is a very simplified explanation, but thinking habits like physical ones, usually can change with an introduction of easy thoughts that gradually become more difficult over time.

But is that the sort of thing that line refers to? If we can take a healthy person with a IQ and reduce their IQ to , even temporarily, while maintaining their physical health, it could reveal how to do the opposite. Teaching to the test boosts test scores.

To show it boost ability, one would have to do followup studies, say of later academic and real life achievements, and then see whether the original score, or the test practice higher score was the more accurate predictor. Learning speed is an integral part of general ability, so I certainly meant them to be inter-changeable when making that remark.

Sounds like more wanking. What is evident is that this kind of group-think is now promoted and sponsored by certain small sects who know what is best for the majority of us. Only we can assess intelligence, dummy, and remember, your dumbness is incurable.

In reality, people have a perfectly clear idea of what intelligence is and have no difficulty in recognizing it when they see it: It is also why intelligence testing fails to identify future Nobel Prize winners in physics. As for most people having an interest in boosting their intelligence, that is nonsense too. People are interested in boosting their skill at whatever they do, motor mechanics, cookery, or quantum mechanics, but boosting brainpower by eating more fish, iron or broccoli is only for cranks.

But the threat of doing so may have quite the reverse effect. As Sam Johnson remarked of the outstanding sermon preached by a clergyman sentenced to capital punishment for passing a dud cheque: One would think that James Thompson should provide links that work to sites where the articles in question can be read no pay-walls.

The Protzko article can be found in full here as a preprint that is apparently in press. It is instructive to glance at the figures — e. Indeed Plotzko himself more or less admits as much:. Overall, more work is needed in training school-aged children on executive functions to see if it reliably raises their intelligence, especially at the latent level due to concerns over the specific posttests used.

Results from adults suggest executive function training may increase visual mental rotation skills but not underlying intelligence at the latent level e. Finally, it is becoming clearer that executive function training may not be an unconditional causal effect; meaning, the effects may be moderated by such factors as personality Schwaighofer et al.

If this turns out to be true across experiments, we will not be able to make claims about whether executive function training is effective. The truth may be more complicated.

Thanks for the book recommendation! I just ordered a copy from the UK it seems to be much more common there. None of these things, however, is necessarily well related to your IQ,. The parking lot one seems heavily g-loaded to me. I think IQ researchers would acknowledge these are related to g. The latest joke I saw was a twin study they funded.

Does anyone really trust big food? As to performance I note as obvious that training and practice in particular areas must have a major effect. That rings true to me though without experience to back it up. Maybe, given its time consuming unremunerative nature we ought to take our cue from our ape cousins and arrange the mental equivalent of defleaing as a communal activity. BTW can you recommend some good online self-help sites embodying your kind of expertise? Link to that paper: This reform increased compulsory education by two years; critically, it was staggered across municipalities in the country.

Under the assumption that the policy change only affected intelligence via increasing years of schooling, the authors used an instrumental variables analysis to estimate the effect of one year of schooling on intelligence at approximately 3. OSF home page for the Ritchie paper: I think no one thinks practice effects boost ability, the main question is whether IQ reflects any independent ability at all. I think retesting should be a more used procedure. First there is regression to the mean, a basic statistical phenomenon causing measurements to become more accurate once random extreme values are diluted in the average from various measurements.

Yet it seems little effort has been made to eliminate them or to explain their biological basis. Being just inside the normal range is a handicap IMO. What you say is interesting. I have some experience, details of which I will not enter into, of making a habit of changing a habit, and I therefore, see the potential you speak of to change habits of thought in ways that increase what is commonly understood to be intelligence.

And is that not essentially the key to good education: That being the case, the relationship between learning to think effectively, i. If there is no relationship, then clearly IQ does not measure important mental qualities that contribute to real world success including, for example, winning Nobel Prizes. If there is a relationship, then IQ is not nearly so genetically determined as the IQist establishment currently maintains. A difference betwen someone who have more time to learn something more complex but learn, and someone who simply no have capacity to reach this specific levels of complexity….

On the contrary, the Wechsler manuals remind users that at least 6 months should elapse between testings, and preferably a year. Test-retest statistics have long been studied. There is also a literature on memory testing re-test effects. It was usually for months prior to entrance exams for hours per week with lots of homework. The students came from motivated families who had aspirations for their children and financial ability to pay for my service.

Some students were not motivated at all and considered themselves to be unable to learn math. In the end they all learned and all passed the exams. However it was more teaching them math than teaching them for the exam, though I paid a lot of attention to how to classify mathematical problems and which template was most suitable in each category.

I would start with Venn diagrams. Adding, multiplying and subtracting sets and then techniques of housekeeping partial solutions. There is such a thing as too much education. How can an ability improve by such a magnitude, with so little practice and yet be described as largely fixed at the same time? And of course, there would be no debate as to whether my ability has improved or the difference comes from the chronometers.

STEM people make bad thinkers in my opinion. Their world view is self-centered, they lack inter-personal skills and have low exposure to most forms of high culture and philosophy. Interestingly, the political divide between specialties is basically an income one, which makes sense since conservative thought is tied to selfishness.

Otherwise, doctors tend to be driven by altruistic ideals and deal with a varied public with which they develop their interpersonal skills and their empathy. Ever given that it came from Afrosapiens I laughed so hard I think I hurt myself. Then try the same with engineer. This is only a testament to your convictions and not actual experiences. You are making two mistakes. First you mistake the unknown known for the known known.

And the second by broadcasting it here you turned what better would have remained unknown into the known widely. Do please carry on. One seldom sees the essence of such a pathological worldview expressed in such a revealing way.

I hazily recall research performed back in the s that focused on discipline-specific knowledge of graduate students. The upshot, if I recall, was that PhD students actually suffer deterioration of core skills from the undergraduate curriculum. I dimly recall a study or two that talked also about general problem solving and critical thinking, with the conclusion that too much time in PhD programs might be detrimental.

If I had time I would search the literature. When I teach law students with a STEM background, they typically wax eloquently about how the sciences teach you to think rigorously, before failing miserably to write a basic legal memo or short essay.

In truth, one only obtains decent exposure to deductive reasoning in a few selected disciplines e. For inductive reasoning, one has probability theory and statistics. Law and political science tend to focus on policy argumentation and analogical reasoning.

The only STEM grads I encounter who have reasonably wide education are physicists, together with the odd pure mathematician. Statisticians, electrical engineers, biochemists, and computer science types my own discipline are often poorly rounded dullards, particularly the asians who flock to these fields in search of good jobs.

The nerdy white and jewish students can be a little more lively, but they often have an overly generous assessment of their knowledge of the humanities. Sure, the modern academy has been infested with cultural marxism.

However, 20 years ago you could find rigorous programs. I recall studying far more difficult material e. The reading load was heavier, and with oral examinations and essays the prospects of cheating were non-existent. They were all science majors, and they spent all their college years absorbing science facts.

But they did not learn how to think. The sciences never make anyone feel uncomfortable unless you have a problem with science itself , because the sciences are filled with unemotional facts. STEM graduates are never taught how to challenge their own intellectual complacency.

I was forced to think for my degree and ponder ideas of all sorts, including unpalatable ones. One of the most important parts of a classical education is learning how to intellectually wrestle with tough ideas and let your reason lead you on in situations in which your emotions blanch. That why you still reach truth. So yeah, the legal professions serve the common good, including the intellectual property rights that make innovations economically viable.

I fully understand them, better than you. Quantifying the impact of rare and ultra-rare coding variation across the phenotypic spectrum. They took , exome scans and looked for rare and ultra rare variants in certain genes. These variants were detrimental and they helped explain 2 months less of EA and 0. If you download Table 4 you can see all the genes that lowered phenotypes.

EA in column z has genes though there are several columns with EA included e. Perhaps you could explain that. How much of this is due to greater exposure to difficult vocabulary during schooling? This may be true of many, which is surely explained at least in part, by the fact that in the sciences, math, etc.

A student of the humanities, however, must come to grips with the realities of human emotion, ambition, greed, cruelty, deceit, etc.

Thus, if half competently taught, a student of the humanities will likely have a better understanding of political and social realities than a STEM grad. At one time, when universities were self-governing communities of scholars, not gigantic, money-seeking, credentialing machines run by venal, time-serving, politically correct, and generally deplorable bureaucrats, many in the STEM field interacted significantly with colleagues in other fields and held the world of the arts, literature and philosophy in high esteem.

Some in the humanities, especially in the fields of math and philosophy were well informed about the sciences. But today, when the humanities are dominated by Commies, anti-white racists, and haters of free speech, the academy has become collection of largely separate intellectual worlds where ignorance of anything but a narrow field is the rule, not the exception: Naturally, STEM grads tend to have no time for that or, therefore, for the academic world from which people with such views derive.

Thirty-two studies out of fifty-three were in China, some in Mexico and Iran. You cited a whole bunch of third world countries. There was a lawyer, an engineer and a politician… Why do professional paths to the top vary so much? No wonder the politics and politicians in the U. When you hear the word psychopath — what do you think of? Probably some brutal serial killer that was out of his mind — right? But — what if I told you that psychopaths that can function at extremely high levels — and succeed in all levels of society?

If you think that psychopathic tendencies and success have nothing in common — then everything you know is wrong! Fluoride is added to public water supplies at an average concentration of about 1 part per million 1 ppm or 1 milligram per liter, or slightly below. I pretty much agree with your assessment of students of various disciplines. I would like to add another dimension.

During the beginning of the ferment in Soviet block in late s and s it was mostly the students and faculty of physics and mathematics department who were the most engaged in risky dissident political activities. The ones who were the most sluggish, conformists, cowardly and apparently pro regime were lawyers, economists and medical doctors. In old times they used to have good background in mathematics at least but nowadays many computer programers are mathematical ignoramuses.

As for increasing IQ with a longer stay at school I doubt it will help. Brighter kids stay at school longer and any IQ tests will reflect that. I think the obsession with IQ is wrong as well. Not everyone is going to be bright. Given equal education the less bright kids will still be less bright even if extra schooling raised their IQ. Better to find a persons natural talents and develop them instead. A cookie cutter approach to education robs a lot of people of true fulfilment in life. The aim is to test how people solve problems they have not seen before.

Good tests of learning speed can take up to 12 months. See the US Army training data described by Gottfredson. IQ tests are a short cut in learning-speed terms. They can be destroyed by publishing the tests. There is no such boosting effect on athletic performance when the Olympic rules are published. As far as you understanding quantitative arguments better than I do, just take a look at your keen interpretation of Z-score signs two threads ago. You certainly are the gift that keeps on giving as far as laughs go.

So when are you going to admit you were wrong about the Z-score signs in that other thread? You realize that you never being able to admit when you are wrong means that no one can trust a single word you say, right?

One thing about their rare variants is that they specifically selected protein truncating variants PTVs. Basically they picked variants that are most likely to be extremely harmful. Which is sensible if you are looking for large effects.

This along with their rarity does explain why these variants are much more likely to be detrimental. I am not seeing the same thing. I added a total row sum for each column and in column Z I get It seems to me like an overly simplistic summary of this paper could be: While looking for that paper I also ran across https: Frankly I begin to think that it is time that we had some real capitalism competition instead of what Adam Smith described as mercantilism governments owned by companies and making laws solely for companies.

My family has almost pure engineering background, but politically are all over the place. I think it is not related to principled, thought-through positions, but mainly because of probably unconscious self-interest. The one who is married, well-to-do and lives in Texas is conservative.

The one who is married and well-to-do but is expecting a high level position is a leftist gig is, unsurprisingly, atheist and liberal. By First Questions I mean stuff like why is there something instead of nothing, what is a man, how then can he live in a group, how should he live in a group, etc.

A Christian, for example, will see life as a gift from a loving God, and will accept the existence of a natural law that tells him how life should be lived. A Communist will think individual lives are not important per se, what is important is the right political system, and so on.

Different mental filters, different life results. This problem of right reason can be observed when people start talking about policy issues how then shall we live? What is desirable for the State to do depends on the same. If a man is man by biology, for example, then no amount of social engineering can make him a woman.

No policies should be set in motion for Bruce Jenner et al. And as we now live in a rather sociopathic, hedonistic society, it is much more difficult to achieve right reason, no matter our IQ or college major. Thank you for replying. This article adds more insight into the genetic foundations of several phenotypes. Um, res, how might one go about finding these SNPs? They have the genes listed, though I am not sure what one might do to find the actual SNPs. I have went to dbsnp and they have a way to do bulk SNP batches into vcf files.

Just not sure how one could do something like that and find all the SNPs mentioned in the paper. Why do these papers not disclose this information? It is very difficult to understand why current science is obscuring their published results. This could be very useful information for people to be provided with. As you say, it might not explain a great deal of the overall variance, though for people with these variants it could matter a great deal and have considerable importance for how their lives and the lives of their children will unfold.

Your charts are interesting, but hardly tell anything about corruption. That China has few lawyers climbing to the top makes sense since rule of law is a foreign concept there, and of all the governments in the comparison, the PRC is without an ounce of doubt the one that behaves in the most psychopathic way.

I think lawyers and business people make good politicians. Economists, doctors, diplomats, scholars and teachers are also people I like to see in high functions. First, this gene class was identified through an unbiased approach that leveraged the observed frequency distribution in ExAC 4 without relying on information from model organisms or in vitro experiments. Second, PI-PTVs have been shown to associate with early onset neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders, and are likely to result in reproductively disadvantageous phenotypes 56,7.

After excluding participants diagnosed with a psychiatric or neurodevelopmental disorder, we observed an average of 7. The number and frequency of rare variants differs across populations, reflecting the degree of selection compounded by recent demography, including bottlenecks, split times, and migration between populations 8. The ratio of deleterious to neutral alleles per individual increases as humans migrated out of Africa, consistent with less efficient negative selection against deleterious variants and serial founder effects that reduce the effective population size 9.

Conditional on a variant being ultra-rare, we observe a higher ratio of PTV to synonymous variants Figure 1b ; recently arisen ultra-rare variants have had less time to be purged by negative selection, which is further magnified in populations that have undergone a recent bottleneck. For example, we observed a higher ratio among Ashkenazi Jewish and Finnish populations as compared to non-Finnish Europeans, reflecting the more recent population-specific bottlenecks 10, I am trying to answer that very question the programmatic batch version, dbSNP and GGV are good for one at a time for myself right now.

If you or anyone else run across any good methods please let me know. The approach would be to pull all the SNPs from a supplementary spreadsheet then read that into R and go through the list programmatically to get the individual SNP information.

Not sure how to do the last part yet. The hard way would be to scrape dbSNP pages, but there has to be a better approach.

I also want to find a way to get Genomes population frequencies. Some discussion of that from five years ago: IMHO they are becoming much better about this not always though. You just have to dig into the supplementary material. It is convenient that the supplementary material is sometimes available even when the paper is paywalled. They may not have seen these very problems before but completed various tasks that caused indirect practice effects.

Either way, what is the aim of IQ tests? Solving problems, or solving novel problems only? In the latter case, IQ tests would only assess how familiar with those types of tasks people are. On the contrary, practice effects on IQ tests are caused by just seeing the items without awareness of which are the right answers.

Of course, so what are we supposed to conclude from that? Whether the difference is large enough to be useful in some sense is immaterial to the statistician. I am curious what other people see given that I did my experiments with Google in a Chrome incognito window. The best thing about statements like this is that no one is always right so everyone can tell just how full of BS you are. Thanks for making that clear.

Still not sure how to do this for the genes that are in the recent paper. Very frustrating that full disclosure is not required in the article.

Are we really supposed to reverse engineer it? How is not giving the results considered to be Science? The Gini Index score of the United States has been steadily going up in tandem with the intensification of Financialization: I generally agree with you on China. To have a government that is so overwhelmingly dominated by people with a common training risks shutting out other ways of thinking about what our politics could be. Anyone can be sued for anything, no matter how absurd or egregious.

And everyone knows how expensive and overwhelming a legal assault can be. The rule of law is essential to a free and orderly society, but too much law and lawyering makes democratic self-rule impossible, and common sense legally precarious.

One way to find them might be to go to the gene view page on dbsnp as above and then zoom out to a chromosome wide level. You could then select the LOFs i,e. This would give 10, for Chromosome Then search by genes. Yet, perhaps the new paper is actually doing an even better job than dbsnp.

That link is a good example of what you can do, and perhaps a good model to follow e. Though there are quite a few blank fields. Doing a database join on that file with another SNP list by rsID might be a good start at what we are looking for depends on of SNPs which appear in both. Spreadsheets are much better than text tables for doing further analysis. This is hard to imagine. How is that even science to publish the results and not provide the SNPs? Articles that merely hint at what the research has found might need to be withheld from publication until such findings are produced.

Some people leave school, find a brainless job, and never read a book afterwards. Others will not only find a challenging, intellectually stimulating work but also use their spare time to learn more.

If that was even remotely true 50 points , the superior, old bookworm geezer caste would visibly run intellectual circles around everyone else since the dawn of man and everyone would be in awe. I do suspect that IQ can be boosted through lifelong study but the IQ gain is probably less than 0. Frankly, these theories reek of SJW politics. Africans have the lowest frequency of the rare and ultra-rare variants. While the Finns and others have very high rates of these variants.

It is almost as though the people who left African were the least favored. This would make sense as the most highly connected would probably want to remain at the center of humanity. Similar situation when the new world was settled: Research into IQ is a great thing. Instead they foster emotionalism over reason. They glorify group work and group think. Efficient development patterns optimize the use of land, resources and public investment in infrastructure and public service facilities.

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