Nutrition Research Database Provides Nutrition Reports for Foods and Supplements
Mississippi Association of cooperatives Jackson, MS http: Based in Portland, Maine, we use organic, sustainable practices to grow food in our community and school gardens and at partnering farms. Guidelines from the American College of Cardiology Hiratzka, et al. The rate of decline is different for each person. Thus, managing the forest through closed areas is a competitive land-use alternative and provides higher net benefits than both open forestland and agricultural croplands.
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Delirium Post-concussion syndrome Organic brain syndrome. Psychoactive substances, substance abuse and substance-related disorders. Schizophrenia , schizotypal and delusional. Schizoaffective disorder Schizophreniform disorder Brief reactive psychosis.
Disorganized hebephrenic schizophrenia Paranoid schizophrenia Simple-type schizophrenia Childhood schizophrenia Pseudoneurotic schizophrenia. Delusional disorder Folie à deux. Neurotic , stress -related and somatoform.
Adjustment disorder with depressed mood. Dissociative identity disorder Psychogenic amnesia Fugue state Depersonalization disorder. Postpartum depression Postpartum psychosis. Adult personality and behavior. Sexual maturation disorder Ego-dystonic sexual orientation Sexual relationship disorder Paraphilia Voyeurism Fetishism. Personality disorder Impulse control disorder Kleptomania Trichotillomania Pyromania Dermatillomania Factitious disorder Munchausen syndrome.
Disorders typically diagnosed in childhood. X-linked intellectual disability Lujan—Fryns syndrome. Catatonia False pregnancy Intermittent explosive disorder Psychomotor agitation Stereotypy Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures Klüver—Bucy syndrome. Encephalitis Viral encephalitis Herpesviral encephalitis Limbic encephalitis Encephalitis lethargica Cavernous sinus thrombosis Brain abscess Amoebic.
Poliomyelitis Demyelinating disease Transverse myelitis Tropical spastic paraparesis Epidural abscess. Encephalomyelitis Acute disseminated Myalgic Meningoencephalitis. Focal Generalised Status epilepticus Myoclonic epilepsy. Migraine Familial hemiplegic Cluster Tension. Insomnia Hypersomnia Sleep apnea Obstructive Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome Narcolepsy Cataplexy Kleine—Levin Circadian rhythm sleep disorder Advanced sleep phase disorder Delayed sleep phase disorder Nonhour sleep—wake disorder Jet lag.
Brain herniation Reye's Hepatic encephalopathy Toxic encephalopathy Hashimoto's encephalopathy. Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy Huntington's disease Kennedy disease Spinocerebellar ataxia 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 17 Machado-Joseph disease.
CCTG Myotonic dystrophy type 2. Retrieved from " https: Huntington's disease Extrapyramidal and movement disorders Genetic diseases and disorders Systemic atrophies primarily affecting the central nervous system Autosomal dominant disorders Trinucleotide repeat disorders Disorders causing seizures.
Sydenham's chorea , benign hereditary chorea , lupus , paraneoplastic syndrome , Wilson's disease . D ICD - Schizophrenia , schizotypal and delusional Psychosis and schizophrenia-like disorders Schizoaffective disorder Schizophreniform disorder Brief reactive psychosis. Neurotic , stress -related and somatoform Anxiety disorder Phobia Agoraphobia Social anxiety Social phobia Anthropophobia Specific social phobia Specific phobia Claustrophobia.
Adult personality and behavior Gender dysphoria Sexual maturation disorder Ego-dystonic sexual orientation Sexual relationship disorder Paraphilia Voyeurism Fetishism. This is because the disorder affects the brain in many different places, but at different rates.
One common sign is difficulty with using only one limb. One symptom that is extremely rare in any condition other than corticobasal degeneration is the "alien limb. Other common symptoms include jerky movements of one or more limbs myoclonus , symptoms that are different in different limbs asymmetric , difficulty with speech that is due to not being able to move the mouth muscles in a coordinated way, numbness and tingling of the limbs and neglecting one side of the person's vision or senses.
In neglect, a person ignores the opposite side of the body from the one that has the problem. For example, a person may not feel pain on one side, or may only draw half of a picture when asked.
In addition, the person's affected limbs may be rigid or have muscle contractions causing strange repetitive movements dystonia. The area of the brain most often affected in corticobasal degeneration is the posterior frontal lobe and parietal lobe. Still, many other part of the brain can be affected. Creutzfeldt—Jakob disease typically causes a dementia that worsens over weeks to months, and is caused by prions.
The common causes of slowly progressive dementia also sometimes present with rapid progression: Alzheimer's disease , dementia with Lewy bodies , frontotemporal lobar degeneration including corticobasal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy.
On the other hand, encephalopathy or delirium may develop relatively slowly and resemble dementia. Possible causes include brain infection viral encephalitis , subacute sclerosing panencephalitis , Whipple's disease or inflammation limbic encephalitis , Hashimoto's encephalopathy , cerebral vasculitis ; tumors such as lymphoma or glioma ; drug toxicity e.
Chronic inflammatory conditions that may affect the brain and cognition include Behçet's disease , multiple sclerosis , sarcoidosis , Sjögren's syndrome , systemic lupus erythematosus , celiac disease , and non-celiac gluten sensitivity.
This consists of immunomodulators or steroid administration, or in certain cases, the elimination of the causative agent. There are many other medical and neurological conditions in which dementia only occurs late in the illness.
For example, a proportion of patients with Parkinson's disease develop dementia, though widely varying figures are quoted for this proportion.
Although the acute porphyrias may cause episodes of confusion and psychiatric disturbance, dementia is a rare feature of these rare diseases. Aside from those mentioned above, inherited conditions that can cause dementia alongside other symptoms include: Mild cognitive impairment means that the person exhibits memory or thinking difficulties, but those difficulties are not severe enough to meet criteria for a diagnosis of dementia.
The first is one that is primarily memory loss amnestic MCI. The second category is anything that is not primarily memory difficulties non-amnestic MCI.
People with primarily memory problems generally go on to develop Alzheimer's disease. People with the other type of MCI may go on to develop other types of dementia. Diagnosis of MCI is often difficult, as cognitive testing may be normal.
Often, more in-depth neuropsychological testing is necessary to make the diagnosis. Various types of brain injury may cause irreversible cognitive impairment that remains stable over time.
Traumatic brain injury may cause generalized damage to the white matter of the brain diffuse axonal injury , or more localized damage as also may neurosurgery.
A temporary reduction in the brain's supply of blood or oxygen may lead to hypoxic-ischemic injury. Strokes ischemic stroke, or intracerebral, subarachnoid, subdural or extradural hemorrhage or infections meningitis or encephalitis affecting the brain, prolonged epileptic seizures , and acute hydrocephalus may also have long-term effects on cognition. Excessive alcohol use may cause alcohol dementia , Wernicke's encephalopathy , or Korsakoff's psychosis.
Dementia that begins gradually and worsens progressively over several years is usually caused by neurodegenerative disease —that is, by conditions that affect only or primarily the neurons of the brain and cause gradual but irreversible loss of function of these cells.
Less commonly, a non-degenerative condition may have secondary effects on brain cells, which may or may not be reversible if the condition is treated. Causes of dementia depend on the age when symptoms begin. In the elderly population usually defined in this context as over 65 years of age , a large majority of dementia cases are caused by Alzheimer's disease , vascular dementia , or both.
Dementia with Lewy bodies is another commonly exhibited form, which again may occur alongside either or both of the other causes. Normal pressure hydrocephalus , though relatively rare, is important to recognize since treatment may prevent progression and improve other symptoms of the condition.
However, significant cognitive improvement is unusual. Dementia is much less common under 65 years of age. Alzheimer's disease is still the most frequent cause, but inherited forms of the disorder account for a higher proportion of cases in this age group.
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration and Huntington's disease account for most of the remaining cases. People who receive frequent head trauma, such as boxers or football players, are at risk of chronic traumatic encephalopathy  also called dementia pugilistica in boxers. In young adults up to 40 years of age who were previously of normal intelligence, it is very rare to develop dementia without other features of neurological disease, or without features of disease elsewhere in the body.
Most cases of progressive cognitive disturbance in this age group are caused by psychiatric illness, alcohol or other drugs, or metabolic disturbance. However, certain genetic disorders can cause true neurodegenerative dementia at this age. These include familial Alzheimer's disease , SCA17 dominant inheritance ; adrenoleukodystrophy X-linked ; Gaucher's disease type 3, metachromatic leukodystrophy , Niemann-Pick disease type C , pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration , Tay-Sachs disease , and Wilson's disease all recessive.
Wilson's disease is particularly important since cognition can improve with treatment. At all ages, a substantial proportion of patients who complain of memory difficulty or other cognitive symptoms have depression rather than a neurodegenerative disease. Vitamin deficiencies and chronic infections may also occur at any age; they usually cause other symptoms before dementia occurs, but occasionally mimic degenerative dementia.
These include deficiencies of vitamin B 12 , folate , or niacin , and infective causes including cryptococcal meningitis , AIDS , Lyme disease , progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy , subacute sclerosing panencephalitis , syphilis , and Whipple's disease. As seen above, there are many specific types and causes of dementia, often showing slightly different symptoms. However, the symptoms are very similar and it is usually difficult to diagnose the type of dementia by symptoms alone.
Diagnosis may be aided by brain scanning techniques. In many cases, the diagnosis cannot be absolutely sure except with a brain biopsy , but this is very rarely recommended though it can be performed at autopsy.
In those who are getting older, general screening for cognitive impairment using cognitive testing or early diagnosis of dementia has not been shown to improve outcomes. Normally, symptoms must be present for at least six months to support a diagnosis. Delirium can be easily confused with dementia due to similar symptoms. Delirium is characterized by a sudden onset, fluctuating course, a short duration often lasting from hours to weeks , and is primarily related to a somatic or medical disturbance.
In comparison, dementia has typically a long, slow onset except in the cases of a stroke or trauma , slow decline of mental functioning, as well as a longer duration from months to years. Some mental illnesses , including depression and psychosis , may produce symptoms that must be differentiated from both delirium and dementia. This is called pseudodementia. However, in recent years researchers have realized that many older people with memory complaints in fact have MCI, the earliest stage of dementia.
Depression should always remain high on the list of possibilities, however, for an elderly person with memory trouble. Changes in thinking, hearing and vision are associated with normal ageing and can cause problems when diagnosing dementia due to the similarities. There are some brief tests 5—15 minutes that have reasonable reliability to screen for dementia.
While many tests have been studied,    presently the mini mental state examination MMSE is the best studied and most commonly used. The MMSE is a useful tool for helping to diagnose dementia if the results are interpreted along with an assessment of a person's personality, their ability to perform activities of daily living, and their behaviour.
Another approach to screening for dementia is to ask an informant relative or other supporter to fill out a questionnaire about the person's everyday cognitive functioning. Informant questionnaires provide complementary information to brief cognitive tests.
It was specifically designed for the use in the primary care setting. Clinical neuropsychologists provide diagnostic consultation following administration of a full battery of cognitive testing, often lasting several hours, to determine functional patterns of decline associated with varying types of dementia. Tests of memory, executive function, processing speed, attention, and language skills are relevant, as well as tests of emotional and psychological adjustment.
These tests assist with ruling out other etiologies and determining relative cognitive decline over time or from estimates of prior cognitive abilities. Routine blood tests are also usually performed to rule out treatable causes. These tests include vitamin B 12 , folic acid , thyroid-stimulating hormone TSH , C-reactive protein , full blood count , electrolytes , calcium , renal function , and liver enzymes. Abnormalities may suggest vitamin deficiency , infection , or other problems that commonly cause confusion or disorientation in the elderly.
A CT scan or magnetic resonance imaging MRI scan is commonly performed, although these tests do not pick up diffuse metabolic changes associated with dementia in a person that shows no gross neurological problems such as paralysis or weakness on neurological exam. The functional neuroimaging modalities of SPECT and PET are more useful in assessing long-standing cognitive dysfunction, since they have shown similar ability to diagnose dementia as a clinical exam and cognitive testing.
In another study, carried out using 66 patients seen at the University of Michigan, PET studies using either PIB or another radiotracer, carbon dihydrotetrabenazine DTBZ , led to more accurate diagnosis for more than one-fourth of patients with mild cognitive impairment or mild dementia.
A number of factors can decrease the risk of dementia. Among otherwise healthy older people, computerized cognitive training may improve memory. However it is not known if it prevents dementia. Except for the treatable types listed above, there is no cure. Cholinesterase inhibitors are often used early in the disorder course; however, benefit is generally small. There is some evidence that educating and providing support for the person with dementia, as well as caregivers and family members, improves outcomes.
Psychological therapies for dementia include tentative evidence for reminiscence therapy ,  [ needs update ] some benefit for cognitive reframing for caretakers,  unclear evidence for validation therapy ,  and tentative evidence for mental exercises , such as cognitive stimulation programs for people with mild to moderate dementia. Adult daycare centers as well as special care units in nursing homes often provide specialized care for dementia patients.
Adult daycare centers offer supervision, recreation, meals, and limited health care to participants, as well as providing respite for caregivers. In addition, home care can provide one-on-one support and care in the home allowing for more individualized attention that is needed as the disorder progresses.
Psychiatric nurses can make a distinctive contribution to people's mental health. Since dementia impairs normal communication due to changes in receptive and expressive language, as well as the ability to plan and problem solve, agitated behaviour is often a form of communication for the person with dementia. Actively searching for a potential cause, such as pain, physical illness, or overstimulation can be helpful in reducing agitation.
It involves looking at the antecedents A , behavior B , and consequences C associated with an event to help define the problem and prevent further incidents that may arise if the person's needs are misunderstood.
No medications have been shown to prevent or cure dementia. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors , such as donepezil , may be useful for Alzheimer disease  and dementia in Parkinson's, DLB, or vascular dementia. As assessment for an underlying cause of the behavior is a needed before prescribing antipsychotic medication for symptoms of dementia. While depression is frequently associated with dementia, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs do not appear to affect outcomes.
The use of medications to alleviate sleep disturbances that people with dementia often experience has not been well researched, even for medications that are commonly prescribed. There is no solid evidence that folate or vitamin B12 improves outcomes in those with cognitive problems. The MATCH-D criteria can help identify ways that a diagnosis of dementia changes medication management for other health conditions.
There is a possibility that people may experience an increase in cardiovascular-related events if these medications are withdrawn. Seniors with dementia experience the same prevalence of conditions likely to cause pain as seniors without dementia. Persistent pain can lead to decreased ambulation, depressed mood, sleep disturbances, impaired appetite, and exacerbation of cognitive impairment,  and pain-related interference with activity is a factor contributing to falls in the elderly.
Although persistent pain in the person with dementia is difficult to communicate, diagnose, and treat, failure to address persistent pain has profound functional, psychosocial , and quality of life implications for this vulnerable population.
Health professionals often lack the skills and usually lack the time needed to recognize, accurately assess, and adequately monitor pain in people with dementia. Educational resources such as the Understand Pain and Dementia tutorial and observational assessment tools are available.
Persons with dementia may have difficulty eating. Whenever it is available as an option, the recommended response to eating problems is having a caretaker do assisted feeding for the person.
However, in bringing person comfort and keeping functional status while lowering risk of aspiration pneumonia and death, assistance with oral feeding is at least as good as tube feeding. Tube feedings may also cause fluid overload, diarrhea, abdominal pain, local complications, less human interaction, and may increase the risk of aspiration.
Benefits of this procedure in those with advanced dementia has not been shown. Aromatherapy and massage have unclear evidence. Omega-3 fatty acid supplements from plants or fish sources do not appear to benefit or harm people with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. It is unclear if taking omega-3 fatty acid supplements can improve other types of dementia.
Person-centered care helps maintain the dignity of people with dementia. The number of cases of dementia worldwide in was estimated at In dementia resulted in about 1.
Until the end of the 19th century, dementia was a much broader clinical concept. It included mental illness and any type of psychosocial incapacity, including conditions that could be reversed.
Dementia has been referred to in medical texts since antiquity. One of the earliest known allusions to dementia is attributed to the 7th-century BC Greek philosopher Pythagoras , who divided the human lifespan into six distinct phases, which were 0—6 infancy , 7—21 adolescence , 22—49 young adulthood , 50—62 middle age , 63—79 old age , and 80—death advanced age. The last two he described as the "senium", a period of mental and physical decay, and of the final phase being where "the scene of mortal existence closes after a great length of time that very fortunately, few of the human species arrive at, where the mind is reduced to the imbecility of the first epoch of infancy".
Chinese medical texts made allusions to the condition as well, and the characters for "dementia" translate literally to "foolish old person". Aristotle and Plato from Ancient Greece spoke of the mental decay of advanced age, but apparently simply viewed it as an inevitable process that affected all old men, and which nothing could prevent.
Plato stated that the elderly were unsuited for any position of responsibility because, "There is not much acumen of the mind that once carried them in their youth, those characteristics one would call judgement, imagination, power of reasoning, and memory. They see them gradually blunted by deterioration and can hardly fulfill their function.
For comparison, the Roman statesman Cicero held a view much more in line with modern-day medical wisdom that loss of mental function was not inevitable in the elderly and "affected only those old men who were weak-willed". He spoke of how those who remained mentally active and eager to learn new things could stave off dementia. However, Cicero's views on aging, although progressive, were largely ignored in a world that would be dominated by Aristotle's medical writings for centuries.
Subsequent physicians during the time of Roman Empire such as Galen and Celsus simply repeated the beliefs of Aristotle while adding few new contributions to medical knowledge. Byzantine physicians sometimes wrote of dementia, and it is recorded that at least seven emperors whose lifespans exceeded the age of 70 displayed signs of cognitive decline. In Constantinople , there existed special hospitals to house those diagnosed with dementia or insanity, but these naturally did not apply to the emperors who were above the law and whose health conditions could not be publicly acknowledged.
Otherwise, little is recorded about dementia in Western medical texts for nearly years. One of the few references to it was the 13th-century friar Roger Bacon , who viewed old age as divine punishment for original sin. Although he repeated existing Aristotelian beliefs that dementia was inevitable after a long enough lifespan, he did make the extremely progressive assertion that the brain was the center of memory and thought rather than the heart.
Poets, playwrights, and other writers however made frequent allusions to the loss of mental function in old age. Shakespeare notably mentions it in some of his plays including Hamlet and King Lear.
During the 19th century, doctors generally came to believe that dementia in the elderly was the result of cerebral atherosclerosis , although opinions fluctuated between the idea that it was due to blockage of the major arteries supplying the brain or small strokes within the vessels of the cerebral cortex. This viewpoint remained conventional medical wisdom through the first half of the 20th century, but by the s was increasingly challenged as the link between neurodegenerative diseases and age-related cognitive decline was established.
By the s, the medical community maintained that vascular dementia was rarer than previously thought and Alzheimer's disease caused the vast majority of mental impairments in old age.
More recently however, it is believed that dementia is often a mixture of both conditions. Much like other diseases associated with aging, dementia was comparatively rare before the 20th century, due to the fact that it is most common in people over 80, and such lifespans were uncommon in preindustrial times. Conversely, syphilitic dementia was widespread in the developed world until largely being eradicated by the use of penicillin after WWII. Over a period of 30 years, sequestered carbon dioxide was Mg ha -1, total soil nitrogen increased by 7.
Carbon revenues alone added up to only about 44 per cent of the net revenues of wheat production. This indicates that i carbon market revenues only, would not generate sufficient incentives to establish additional exclosures, and ii if all benefits are taken into account and financially rewarded, exclosures are competitive to alternatives land uses.
We also identified substantial opportunities to mobilize the local communities in efforts to establish exclosures, given that more than 75 per cent had a positive view on exclosures effectiveness to restore degraded soils and vegetation. We conclude that a comprehensive analysis is necessary to consider the ecological as well as economic and social impacts of exclosures.
Our findings are important information for local decision makers and may provide incentives for the establishment of further exclosures in the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia, thereby contributing to a sustainable local development process.
Economic valuation of land restoration: The case of exclosures established on communal grazing lands in Tigray, Ethiopia. Land Degradation and Development. An Assessment of the Economic Implications. However, land degradation in this area is considered to be one of the severest cases worldwide. As a basis for the final cost-benefit analysis, the study conducted a land cover mapping which was complemented by a conservation structure mapping.
The unit of analysis is a pixel of 30 m by 30 m, in line with the resolution of the Landsat imagery used for assessing land cover. In total the study area covers more than million pixels. Therefore, the study undertakes an estimation of future crop production for a 30 year time period by examining four different scenarios each modelling a different variation of conservation structure distribution and fertilizer application. Report for the Economics of Land Degradation Initiative.
Ethiopia Amghara and Tigray regions. Land degradation in the form of soil erosion and nutrient depletion presents a threat to food security and sustainability of agricultural production in many developing countries. Governments and development agencies have invested substantial resources to promote soil conservation practices as part of an effort to improve environmental conditions and reduce poverty.
However, there is very limited rigorous empirical work that has been done on the economics of soil conservation technology adoption. This paper investigates the impact of stone bunds on value of crop production per hectare in low and high rainfall areas of the Ethiopian highlands using cross-sectional data from more than households, with multiple plots per household.
We have used modified random effects models, stochastic dominance analysis SDA and matching methods to ensure robustness. The parametric regression and SDA estimates are based on matched observations obtained from nearest neighbor matching using propensity score estimates.
This is important, because conventional regression and SDA estimates are obtained without ensuring that there actually exist comparable conserved and non-conserved plots on the distribution of covariates.
We find that the three methods tell a consistent story. Plots with stone bunds are more productive than those without such technologies in semi-arid areas but not in higher rainfall areas, apparently because the moisture conserving benefits of this technology are more beneficial in drier areas.
This implies that the performance of stone bunds varies by agro-ecology type, suggesting the need for designing and implementing appropriate site-specific technologies. Estimating returns to soil conservation adoption in the northern Ethiopian highlands.
Three African Case Studies. The study developed and evaluated a methodological framework for conducting joint assessments with pastoralist range scouts. The framework has four components: The feedbacks between different components were used for information transfer. The framework was applied to the three case studies using participatory methods. The scouts conducted rangeland assessments using ecological and anthropogenic indicators.
Soils, and then vegetation, and finally livestock production were used as the main indicators for understanding rangeland degradation. In addition, pastoralists used key-plant species to assess landscape grazing suitability and soils to assess landscape-grazing potential. The latter is critical for evaluating potential stocking densities that each landscape could support during the wet or dry grazing seasons.
For anthropogenic indicators herders used milk yield, body hair condition, weight gain and mating frequency to assess livestock production performances. Pastoralist scouts assessed rangeland degradation and trends using historical knowledge of the landscapes.
The findings confirmed comparable knowledge systems among the three pastoral communities. The methods can be applied across regions where pastoralism still dominates the rural economy. The system of indigenous rangeland assessments and monitoring could rapidly provide information needed by policy makers.
Harnessing pastoralists' indigenous knowledge for rangeland management: Three African case studies. A Bio-economic Model with Market Imperfections. This paper presents a bio-economic model of Andit Tid, a severely degraded crop-livestock farming system with high population density and good market access in the highlands of Ethiopia. Land degradation, population growth, stagnant technology, and drought threaten food security in the area.
Drought or weather risk appears to have increased in recent years. The bio-economic model is used to analyse the combined effects of land degradation, population growth, market imperfections and increased risk of drought on household production, welfare and food security.
We find that the indirect effects of drought on household welfare through the impact on crop and livestock prices are larger than the direct production effects of drought. Provision and adoption of credit for fertiliser, although risky in itself, may lead to increased grain production and improved household welfare and food security.
Provision of credit may have a negative effect on conservation incentives but this effect may be mitigated by linking a conservation requirement to the provision of credit for fertiliser. Land degradation, drought and food security in a less-favoured area in the Ethiopian highlands: The last few years have witnessed a renewed interest in the export of live animals and meat from Kenya and Ethiopia.
In both cases, the private sector has taken the lead in initiating or advocating for the revival of the export business, prompting the respective governments to pay attention to the potentials of livestock trade. In Kenya, this move was enhanced by the formation of a new Ministry for Livestock and Fisheries. This has led to the re-operationalization of the Kenya Meat Commission, new plans to set up satellite abattoirs in strategic locations along the northern corridor, innovative approaches to improve dilapidated market infrastructure and a continued interest in addressing sanitary requirements related to livestock and meat trade.
Kenya has also incorporated a livestock marketing policy in the national livestock policy document still in draft. Prior to this, interested groups such as the Kenya Livestock Marketing Council, initially supported by Arid Land Resource Management Project, had set up various district- based livestock marketing groups and played a major role in raising awareness and establishing linkages between producers and potential importers.
During the last ten years in Ethiopia, the private sector has been active in setting up export abattoirs and also in the exporting of live animals. Bilateral programs specifically designed to address sanitary issues were also on the fore.
Many of the NGOs operate at the local level with a few exceptions that operate at the national level. Considering the size of the human population that depends on livestock production in both countries, the development of domestic and export markets is critical to alleviating poverty, raising revenues, and continuing the trend towards more market-orientation. In realization of this potential, both governments are taking some encouraging measures towards promoting the marketing of livestock, specifically from pastoral areas.
However, livestock and meat marketing, especially exports, is a complex process. The subsistence production systems in Ethiopia and Kenya cannot compete with commercial producers in Brazil or Australia. International trade barriers SPS, tariff and non-tariff impose huge limitations on both countries.
Export marketing and promotional strategies in destination countries are almost non-existent. There is no economy of scale to offset costs. In short, the livestock and meat marketing systems are not as efficient nor as streamlined as those of their competitors. Yet, these problems are not insurmountable in the long-term. Some require substantial investments, for example, in animal health and SPS systems, infrastructure and processing facilities.
Others may require a combination of institutional and attitudinal changes such as shifting the mode of production to meet what the market demands. Competing in the international market entails acquiring and practicing savvy marketing strategies along with availing the right product on time. Obviously, a public and private sector partnership is crucial to achieving long-term objectives.
More importantly, an appropriate policy framework is the pre- requisite for providing an enabling environment for all actors. This paper will look into some policy and operational issues.
Livestock marketing in Kenya and Ethiopia: A review of policies and practice. Feinstein International Centre, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia is a country of an agrarian economy characterized by high population growth, huge dependence on erratic rainfall, low agricultural productivity, structural bottlenecks and land-lockedness.
The sector is characterized by low productivity partly due to low investment level in the sector particularly in smallholder farmers backward farming technologies, low farm level capacity, land degradation and recurrent drought The last few years the performance of the sector has notably improved. Ethiopia is the richest country in the livestock inventories in Africa with the total of about 41 million heads of cattle, 25 million heads of sheep 23 million of goats 41million of chicken, 5.
The richness of the country is both in terms of large number and diversity of livestock population. The productivity problems are linked to availability and quality of feeding resources, animal breeds and type of production systems. In addition, the fact that there is a lack of proper appreciation for the sector in the including adequate account for its role and significance in the economy means negligence in terms of proper support to raise the productivity and role of this sector.
Accurate livestock database disaggregated by the lowland and highland farming systems is lacking leading to a failure to properly inform policy makers to design appropriate national level livestock development strategies and policies1. One other reason is probably that policy makers have viewed livestock mainly in terms of their contributions to agricultural activities as traction power and hence their contribution to the livelihoods of the poor has been neglected.
Pastoral areas in Ethiopia, which cover about 0. These areas support about 9. Although pastoralism plays significant role in the Ethiopian economy, this sector with huge economic, social and environmental roles and benefits has been largely marginalized by the development policies and strategies in the past.
The vast rangeland is denied the necessary economic and social infrastructure and services as the meager development effects attained in the in the country could not be regionally balanced taking account of the needs in the low land pastoral areas.
Development interventions, if they took place remained to be extractive simply by facilitating the market off-take of the livestock resource without being people and pastoral system based development intervention. Such lack of overall Pastoralism development strategies and policies emanate from the under valuation of the total economic benefits of pastoralism. SOS Sahel Ethiopia, It's total economic value and development challenges.
A Contingent Valuation Analysis. Frankincense from Boswellia papyrifera forest is a traded commodity used in the pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic and chemical industries. Ethiopia is an important producer of frankincense, but the resource is under continuous degradation and requires conservation. We applied a contingent valuation to assess rural households' willingness to pay and willingness to contribute labor for BPF conservation.
Next to the bid, willingness to pay is influenced most by income, education, and willingness to contribute labor by family labor and gender of the household head. This suggests that using per capita daily income rather than market wage rates could result in convergence in response asymmetry of labor and cash payment vehicles.
The potential local demand for conservation of BPF could be mobilized effectively with complementary policy interventions aimed at sustainable use and poverty reduction. Rural households' demand for frankincense forest conservation in Tigray, Ethiopia: A contingent valuation analysis.
Ethiopia Amhara and Tigray regions. This article uses data from household- and plot-level surveys conducted in the highlands of the Tigray and Amhara regions of Ethiopia.
We examine the contribution of sustainable land management SLM practices to net value of agricultural production in areas with low vs. A combination of parametric and non-parametric estimation techniques is used to check result robustness. The results are found to be insensitive to hidden bias.
Our findings imply a need for careful agro-ecological targeting when developing, promoting, and scaling up SLM practices. The economics of sustainable land management practices in the Ethiopian Highlands. Millions of people throughout the world make extensive use of goods and service of forest resources. Forest goods are either timber or non-timber. Non-timber forest products NTFPs are harvested for both subsistence and commercial use and play a key role in the livelihoods of millions of rural people.
It has received increased policy and research attention due to its perceived potential to meet sustainable rural development and tropical forest conservation. In Ethiopia studies in different parts of the country have shown that many rural households depend on NTFPs for subsistence and cash income. Although wealth of literature are building on NTFPs of Ethiopia, still studies are far less than sufficient to cover the wide ecological and forest types found in the country.
One of the ecological regions relatively less covered is the Bale region characterized by high diversity of plant and animal species, agro ecology and forest formations. This study, therefore, was conducted in the Harana Bulluk district of Bale Zone, with the main objective of assessing and analyzing the contribution of NTFPs to rural livelihood and to identify factors influencing household level of engagement in the business.
Five villages were selected based on their proximity gradient from the forest. Formal survey was carried out on a total of households HHs selected using stratified random sampling. The contribution of NTFPs varied with proximity and wealth status of households. Households close to the forest generate more income than do those at a distant location.
The relative contribution of NTFP to household income of the poor was This variation shows that in relative terms the poor rely more on NTFPs than the medium or rich, however, in absolute terms wealthy households extract greater income than poor and medium. Major constraints for improved NTFPs production were i shortage of labour, ii poor knowledge of managing and extracting NTFPs, iii poor market link, and iv low market prices.
Currently, the study area forest is experiencing immense pressure, which is partly due to its nearness to open access condition. So to reverse this situation forestland title tenure should clearly be defined. The study has shown that NTFPs play a significant role in improving the livelihood of the people while conserving a forest. The role of non timber forest products to rural livelihoods and forest conservation: Alentejo is one of the most underdeveloped regions in Portugal and it has.
Alqueva Multipurpose Project Brochure. A spatial value transfer analysis was performed to generate baseline estimates of the value of ecosystem services in the coastal zone of Catalonia, Spain.
The study used the best available conceptual frameworks, data sources, and analytical techniques to generate non-market monetary value estimates that can be used to identify scarce ecosystem services among competing coastal uses. The approach focused on natural and seminatural, terrestrial and marine systems, which provide essential services that are not considered in current economic markets. In a spatially explicit manner, the approach illustrates the contribution made by natural environmental systems to the wellbeing of communities in the coastal zone of Catalonia.
It is hoped that this study will highlight the need to consider these coastal systems in future management strategies to ensure their proper maintenance and conservation.
An assessment of the non-market values of ecosystem services provided by the Catalan Coastal Zone, Spain. Ocean and Coastal Management. Assessing the Costs of Land Degradation: Spain Puentes catchment, southeastern Spain. Whereas many studies point out the economic benefits of controlling land degradation through sustainable land management SLM approaches, there is often a lack of local adoption of SLM techniques.
Analysis of the local impacts and costs of land degradation is critical for understanding farmers' responses to land degradation. The objective of this paper is to analyse the local costs of land degradation in the Puentes catchment in southeast Spain.
This catchment has been identified as particularly vulnerable to erosion, yet farmers show a general lack of interest in applying erosion control techniques. The paper subsequently analyses land degradation processes in the Puentes catchment, the income derived from agriculture and several other ecosystem services, and the local costs of land degradation.
Erosion is widespread in the catchment, comprising sheet and rill erosion as well as gulley erosion. Relatively high erosion rates are encountered in cropland. Dryland agriculture, hunting and herding provide additional income. Except on the steepest slopes, these costs are relatively low for the farmers, which explains the limited application of erosion control techniques in the catchment. Assessing the costs of land degradation: Spain Cadiz and Tunisia Ain Snoussi.
Two management scenarios are simulated: The aim of the paper is to compare the present value of income changes from the sustainable and unsustainable management scenarios in Cadiz Spain and Ain Snoussi Tunisia , considering the multiple commercial uses and forest amenities enjoyed by private owners only in Cadiz of cork oak forests.
The results show that the sustainable cork oak forest management in Ain Snoussi generates a higher present value of aggregated labour and capital incomes and leads to a capital loss when compared to the current cork oak depletion scenario. In addition, the sustainable scenario in Ain Snoussi would reduce the total self-employed income for households that depend on open-access grazing resources.
In Cadiz, the cork oak forest sustainable management scenario leads to a significant capital loss for private forest owners given current cork prices and government aid to forest natural regeneration.
Cork oak forest management in Spain and Tunisia: Two case studies of conflicts between sustainability and private income. Spain Almeria, South Spain. In order to ensure customer satisfaction and safety, Michelin evaluates the.
Protecting Ecosystems while Testing Tires. Public Preferences for Landscape Features: Carmen Gonzalez-Roa and J. Spain mountain area of the Alpujarras. Provision of landscape amenities produced by farmers, in addition to their economic function of producing food and fibre, has contributed to a reassessment of the role of agriculture in society. In this paper, we examine whether agricultural landscape provision really responds to a social demand as is argued by those in favour of multifunctionality.
Thus, the aim of the present work is two-fold. First, we evaluate rural landscape preferences of citizens from a range of choices in the mountain area of the Alpujarras south-eastern Spain , and second, we estimate their willingness to pay WTP to enjoy each of the landscape characteristics existing in the area. For the empirical analysis, based on a survey of public preferences due to the good public characteristics of landscape amenities, we applied two stated preference methods: Three landscape attributes were considered for this analysis: Several levels were also considered for each attribute: Maintaining local agricultural activities, preventing future migration from agricultural lands, recovering abandoned fields, and including elements of rural landscape observation and appreciation of existing recreational programmes for rural tourism in the area, were among the strategies to take full advantage of this aesthetic landscape potential, and to foster sustainable development of the region.
Public preferences for landscape features: The case of agricultural landscape in mountainous Mediterranean areas. Maren Wiese Location s: Building on the research taking place in the Cantabrian Mountain Range on the physiogeographic characteristics and environmental problems combined with the knowledge about our identified stakeholders, the different interests in land use and land management and the resulting conflicts, the main goal of our stakeholder engagement plan is the development of a future-orientated development of the entire region in agreement, interaction and collaboration of the individual stakeholders taking the policies of sustainability, nature conservation and green development into account.
An economic valuation of a large-scale rangeland restoration project through project through the Hima system in Jordan. Vanja Westerberg and Moe Myint Location s: Jordanian rangelands are a source of valued livestock produce, carbon storage, biodiversity and medicinal plants.
They also serve as watersheds that receive rainfall, yield surface water, and replenish the groundwater throughout the region to the east and south of the western Jordan highlands. Appropriate land management can protect and maximize these services for society.
With the acceleration of desertification, land degradation and drought during the twenty-first century in the arid and semi-arid regions of Jordan, these services are becoming jeopardized. It is therefore increasingly urgent to define and pursue viable strategies to reverse this trend.
To inform the debate surrounding this approach, this paper presents an ex-ante Cost Benefit Analysis of large-scale rangeland rehabilitation through the Hima system within the Zarqa River Basin drawing on experience from a pilot initiative.
The ecosystem services that arise from rangeland rehabilitation are valued using a combination of stated preference, avoided costs, replacement cost and market prices approaches. The economic analysis builds on high-resolution remote sensing, GIS and biophysical Soil and Water Assessment Tools elaborated to rigorously calibrate the impact of land use changes on forage availability, ground water infiltration, carbon sequestration and sediment stabilisation.
Given this encouraging result, we discuss the different policy instruments that may be used to incentivize the rehabilitation of rangelands in Jordan. An economic valuation of a large-scale rangeland restoration project through in Jordan. An economic valuation of agroforestry and land restoration in the Kelka Forest, Mali: Assessing the socio-economic and environmental dimensions of land degradation.
The Kelka forest in the Mopti region of Mali is important for the provision of ecosystem services like carbon sequestration and maintenance of the hydrological cycle. The Kelka forest area occupies more than , hectares with 15 villages within and around its boundaries.
The forest resources and soil fertility of the forest are in continuous decline due to a combination of climatic and human induced factors. For example, the availability of firewood has halved over the past 15 years due to a lack of adequate forest and land management. Sustainable land management interventions that can reverse the current trend of forest and land degradation are increasingly necessary, but large scale interventions need to be grounded in solid assessments of their potential economic and financial value to the local and the global society.
To address this need, the paper presents an ex-ante cost benefit analysis of large-scale agroforestry and reforestation in the Kelka forest to inform decision-makers about the value and importance of changing current land use practices. The analysis is based on high-resolution remote sensing techniques, an explicit spatially distributed hydrological model, and a crop growth model, developed to assess the impact of land use change on firewood availability, soil moisture, carbon sequestration, and nitrogen fixation.
Different options for incentivizing agroforestry and restoration of the Kelka forest are discussed. An economic valuation of agroforestry and land restoration in the Kelka Forest, Mali. Mali using data from Burkina Faso. Land degradation in the Sahelian countries of West Farida is widely perceived as a critical threat to economic development. Some studies have quantified the extent of physical decline locally bit few have attempts to determine its economic impact.
There is some evidence, however that current rates of depletion of Sahelian land resources may be excessive from an economic perspective, due to insecurity of land tenure and poorly developed capital markets. This paper attempts to evaluate the gross on-site cost of soil erosion in Mali, a nation in which subsistence farming accounts for about one-fifth of national income. Mean local rates of soil erosion by rainfall are estimated and mapped using data derived from a land resources atlas of Mali and the Universal Soil Loss Equation.
This analysis concerns only cultivated land within a north-south swath of Mali, comprising roughly one third of the country's most productive agricultural areas Average soil loss Is estimated at 6. Using a range of assumptions about the impact of erosion on crop yields, estimated rates of soil erosion on farm land imply average annual yield penalties in the study area between 24 and These losses are expressed in terms of foregone net farm income, using farm budgets recorded in Burkina Faso.
Estimates of foregone farm income are compared to the costs of a relatively inexpensive soil conservation technology rock contour bunds. Areas are identified where such investment may be justified as shown by a higher level of estimated farm income foregone. The report suggests that economic returns to agriculture will be overstated by conventional benefit-cost analysis. However, soil erosion in one season affects crop yields in each subsequent year, until the land is fallowed.
For most of Mali's agricultural land, there probably exist some cost-effective measures to reduce erosion losses. We must distinguish, however, between cost-effectiveness from a public and from a private perspective. If farmers do not already use basic soil conserving measures, it may be because they discount potential increased future yields at such a high rate that almost any present investment is uneconomic. This might be more effectively remedied by policy changes, such as formal recognition of indigenous land tenure system which would increase access to formal credit, or relaxation of constraints on informal credit.
Because of the uncertainty of the underlying calculations, any policy and program prescriptions based on this research must be tentative. The study is perhaps best considered as an illustration of a method of evaluation land degradation rather than as a definitive analysis with which to justify intervention. Hence the emphasis throughout is on methods of approximation and comparison.
The on-site cost of soil erosion in Mali. Environment Working Paper No. The World Bank, Washington D. An economic valuation of sustainable land management through agroforestry in eastern Sudan. Gedaref State was previously known as the food basket of Sudan. Over several decades unsustainable agricultural practices that combined near-monocropping with low nutrient replenishment have led to significant degradation of soils, which are no longer able to sustain farmer livelihoods.
This study found that adopting an integrated sustainable land use and forest restoration scenario could reverse the current land degradation trend. It has soil nitrogen enhancing properties and international demand for its gum, make it a promising species to integrate in agricultural systems for both environmental and economic health.
In parallel, consideration was also given to reforesting hills that have bare and exposed soil, with Luban gum trees such as Boswellia catering, Boswellia frererana, and Boswellia papyrifera. Currently these hills are not used for productive gains and have no competing land use, thus their reforestation would incur little to no opportunity costs. The valuation of both proposed integrated sustainable land management and forest restoration scenarios were undertaken using an ex-ante cost benefit analysis.
An assessment of the ecosystem services and economic impact of restoration scenarios was carried out using valuation techniques which included a productivity change approach, and replacement and avoided damage cost approaches. The analysis built on high-resolution remote sensing, GIS, and biophysical soil and water assessment tools, allowing for rigourous estimates of the impact of land use change on agricultural yields, groundwater infiltration, water runoff, and carbon sequestration.
The results showed that the net present value returns to society as well as to the individual farmer of intercropping A. At the farmer level, benefits of using an intercropping system outweigh the investment and management costs between three to four years after their establishment. However, favourable estimates of the financial returns from gum arabic offer no guarantee that the farmer will undertake gum production Barbier This decision will depend on what returns can be obtained from other crops and the time profile of these returns, as argued in Barbier Thus, there are a number of fundamental policy initiatives necessary to encourage farmers to transition towards integrating A.
Causes and Impacts of Land Degradation and Desertification: