Weight Reduction Medications and Programs

What is the Jenny Craig Diet?

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Our goal at Jenny Craig is to help you meet your goals and maximize your weight loss. Had to do with weigh in day and food purchase date being different. Different mechanisms for the anti-diabetic effect of plants have been proposed: Over the years, the tallest three of us got heavier than healthy, not obese-heavy, just carrying way too much excess weight. You're not just gonna have one good day and then cheat the next. Bistro MD can adjust their menus to accommodate you if you have certain types of food allergies.

INTRO NUMBER TWO: The Billboard Effect.

Jenny Craig

A bottle of Take Shape For Life varies based on the products purchased. Each kits lasts 30 days. You should take Take Shape For Life for six days per week. Typically, Take Shape For Life is not covered by insurance, but the company recommends checking with your insurance company prior to ordering.

Take Shape For Life come with a guarantee. You can return blenders and consumable products within 30 days of purchase, minus the cost of shipping and handling.

If you purchased a Fitbit on the official website, you have 45 days to return the product for a full refund. You can also exchange products within the day time frame. If you are looking for an easier way to lose weight, you should think about trying Dietspotlight Burn , especially since it is backed by positive customer reviews.

Summer Banks, Director of Content at Dietspotlight, has researched over weight-loss programs, pills, shakes and diet plans.

Previously, she managed 15 supplement brands, worked with professionals in the weight loss industry and completed coursework in nutrition at Stanford University. Do Not Send Email Notifications.

TSFL was designed to give personal coaching to anyone using our fast,safe,Dr approved meals. You deserve a good coach,we are paid by TSFL to assist you in all areas. A good coach not only knows how help you with your weightloss and maintainence we can help you save ,even earn money.

Coaches do not get a discount,we pay the same for our meals as anyone else. A good coach can be essential to your on going success. If you do not have a good coach,I encourage you to ask customer service for the coach above your coach etc. I like several others who have responded above, would love to personally assist anyone who is not getting the help you need.

I chose to become a certified health coach when I experianced how well our program worked. Many blessings on your road to health may it be an exciting journey for you: Yes just like Kat said here, get all the facts before you write something. I am glad I read all these replyies and not just base a dission on what the Arthur wrote above.

I think it sounds like a good program I know 2 pepole who have been on it one of them lost 47 pounds and the other pounds and yes one of them is a life coach. Other diets have left me so hungry I could eat a horse. I have tried Weight Watchers , Nutrisystem , and working with a nutritionist.

I was hungry all the time and although I lost weight, I gained it back. I started Take Shape for Life one week ago. I have had minimal hunger a couple of times the first couple of days, but none the last 5. I have lost 6 pounds so far. The workbook and text book that come with the program are incredible. The variety of food is limited but OK. My mother was a Type 2 diabetic and after 30 years of taking high doses of insulin now only needs a very small dose oral medication 40 pounds lost.

My daughter no longer has high cholesterol 50 pounds lost. I am off of at least 5 medications for high blood pressure and acid refux disease pounds lost.

Please check out my earlier comments and contact me through my website TakeShapeWithTita. I was taking units of novalog and 35 of levamir. This program is what you make of it. Stick to it and it definately works. No, Jayne, maintenance is not hard.

We all know that losing the weight is only half the battle. You need to change the way you think about food in order to keep it off, and you do that while in the weight loss phase of the program. It only takes two weeks to form a new habit or break an old one, so the way we eat while losing weight becomes part of our eating habits. Contact me if I can help. I have lost pounds myself and have been a Health Coach for 2 years.

I lost 70 lbs off two years ago and then yo-yoed in fear. I gained 20 back until the summer and since the fall have gained another I am back since today. My health coach is not greta at all. I to have a terrible coach! I have been on the program for exactly 14 weeks and have lost 60 pounds! Six months ago, my cholesterol level was That was after taking cholesterol medicine for 18 years! Last week I went to the doctor again, and my new cholesterol level is only !!!

At that time, I had been on this program for only 13 weeks. My doctor was amazed. I have decided to learn all I can about Take Shape For Life, become a health coach, and help others regain their health. Is this a bad thing! In my many years at IBM no one ever helped me like this. Mike Great to see your success, I would like to chat via email. Would like very much to get your imput. Andrew from Cape May NJ. My coach is great.

I figured that she was making money every time I purchased food, but who cares? I finally found something that works for me.

And I agree with Carmel. I will eat cal over the period of 1 day though. I started 2 weeks ago and I have lost 12 lbs. I am steadily become healthier, happier and yes by helping others do the same, more financially stable. Dave, I am not sure where you received your information. You can absolutely change your health coach — anyone can at any time. If you had done your research, you would see that this company does not fit the definition of an MLM at all — no requirement to sign up anyone, no inventory, no wholesale pricing to coaches, and much more.

Coaches simply get compensated for coaching people on the program. They are not selling anything. I lost 70 pounds last year and have kept the weight off. Send me a message if you are interested in this program. I would be interested in communicating to you about the TSFL program.

I have lots of questions and not sure where to go for answers. Hi Melissa, I just started the medifast plan on monday. I am feeling a bit light headed at times…. If you continue to have these side effects, please consult with your physician before continuing this weight loss program. Theresa, This is normal.

You have completely changed your eating habits. You are now intaking less calories, less sugars and less carbs! So your body is sort of detoxing. Hang in there, the light-headedness will soon come to an end! I have a married couple that are health coaches together. I only needed to lose 35 pounds and did it in 4 months.

I loved everything about it. You can use any dry spice you want to add flavor or variety, there are a ton of recipes that are available. My coaches just gave them to me. My family has learned to eat healthier as well. If you are really ready to be healthy and lose the weight call them!! I am going on to be certified so I can better help people have optimal health. You should also toss anything that might trigger you to snack or eat more than you should.

Make sure to keep in constant communication with your health partner and dietitian being absolutely open with them. It is better to admit that you failed or slipped than to act like everything is fine while in real facts you are failing. Using these steps, apparently, will give you your very own Jenny Craig at home.

Does this diet program work? At the high cost of the diet plan, will we actually lose weight? According to WebMD many people can attest to the fact that the plan worked for them. The plan also works great for vegetarians and those that do not consume gluten since there are a variety of options. However, the diet is not good for vegans because almost all the prepackaged foods have some levels of dairy in them.

According to a review of previous studies, it was seen that obese adults that were put on the Jenny Craig diet plan showed a 4. Everyone burns calories differently, and for some, counting calories can be a bad thing. Customers are given prepackaged foods with the calories already counted and certified as okay. There is no scientific research linking this diet to weight loss and management. National Institutes of Health conducted a study on mice that were given a low-calorie diet.

Middle-aged mice 16 months old were fed the diet for 4 consecutive days, followed by 10 days of unlimited access to food.

The mice overate during these phases so that their overall calorie intake was similar to mice continuously fed a regular diet. There is a wealth of information, blogs and articles pointing out the downfalls of meal planning.

The mega-downside is that this diet is super expensive. Jenny Craig prices are as follows:. These prices do not include the cost of buying the foods. The Jenny Craig online website allows for people to order, choose and buy foods without having to physically go to the local Jenny Craig centers.

The online system requires your information, so they can recommend the best foods for you. When ordering online, the first order is usually chosen by the company as a way of giving you an idea of what would best work for you and from then on you choose the plans yourself. Orders are made in batches of two weeks, but there is a three-day sample trial.

This sample meal includes nine meals, three snacks and three salad dressings. After giving all your information, the Jenny Craig Food Delivery team ships the food out to you. You can choose from picking up your food from the local center or have them directly delivered to you — which will cost you extra. Not all experts agree with low-calorie diets, pointing out the possible side effects — which are a bit shocking.

According to WebMD , possible side effects of a low-calorie diet include: Nutrisystem and Weight Watchers are a couple of popular diet plans.

These systems have often been compared by many reviewers in the hope of finding which one is the best route to take. All three systems include prepackaged meals in their diet plan. This can be attributed to the fact that with prepackaged foods, calorie control is a guarantee.

In terms of prices, Weight Watchers is the cheapest, followed by Nutrisystem. Jenny Craig was dead last in this category — the most expensive of the three. When it comes to the support system, a study by the Colorado State University has shown that Weight Watchers and Jenny Craig offer constant weekly group or individual counselling and meetings that are physical and interactive as opposed to Nutrisystem whose support system is only online and among dieters.

The other difference among these three systems is that Nutrisystem does not offer any background check or change for its clients. A background check in terms of their previous eating regimen, their exercise habits, etc. Both Weight Watchers and Jenny Craig help in knowing the past of its clients to determine their problems and assist in changing their ways of thinking and doing things when it comes to their nutrition and health. What we gather from these comparisons, is that the only thing separating Jenny Craig from the competition is the outrageous price tag.

I just started my third round this past Tuesday. Counting calories, eating healthy and exercising are sure to help you lose some weight, but at what cost? Is this diet plan going to catapult you to weight-loss glory? It might work for some, but there are just too many negatives for us to back this diet. If your goal is to lose weight, increase energy and eliminate hunger, you should go with a simple supplement designed to deliver results and not drain your bank account.

One of the best products of the year is called Burn TS. This supplement is a proprietary blend of 4 natural ingredients shown in published research to increase energy, burn fat and curb appetite. Customer reviews are showing great success, with some users pointing out the amazing value of the product. Choosing the right weight-loss system can be confusing and often times frustrating. Let us know a little more about you and your goals. Jenny Craig makes a variety of healthy meals that you can purchase while you are on the program.

The ingredients in their meals includes vegetables, whole grains, fruits and lean meats such as chicken, beef, pork and chicken. Their meals are low in calories, carbohydrates, sugar, and saturated fats. There are no known side effects of the Jenny Craig program although some of their clients have reported food allergies. Choosing the right product is the 1 question asked by DietSpotlight readers. We recommend trying any product before buying it and know that finding a product with a sample offer is near impossible - so we created our own product, Burn TS, with scientifically backed ingredients.

Jenny Craig claims that the members that follow their program lose an average of pounds per week. Jenny Craig can be purchased using their Official Site or through Amazon.

You can contact Jenny Craig by going to their website at http: You can also call for immediate assistance. Jenny Craig guarantees that their clients will lose an average of pounds while in on their weight loss program. The most common complaint of clients who have reviewed Jenny Craig is regaining weight when the client ends their participation in the program.

Summer Banks, Director of Content at Dietspotlight, has researched over weight-loss programs, pills, shakes and diet plans. Previously, she managed 15 supplement brands, worked with professionals in the weight loss industry and completed coursework in nutrition at Stanford University.

Do Not Send Email Notifications. If you order online, the cost is ridiculous even though I can afford it. You must have a huge freezer capacity if you have others in your household. I am very disappointed. In part, that's because I didn't "choose" Medifast, it chose me by virtue of my friends Kathy and Georgia starting it. I did no other research. I honestly didn't even think of it but also know that I am often confounded by too many choices, leading to long periods of indecision.

Sorry, not much help as you make your own deliberations! The "snack" ideas do resonate, since one of the things I most appreciate about Medifast is the frequency of the food intake. A meal implies something else, and for me, at least for now and I hope for later, more small and healthy meals during the course of a day feels right, keeping my sugar levels even over many hours.

My idea for these "non meal" meals are a small bowl of vegetable soup or a small salad or a small piece of protein or a small piece of fruit. There IS a difference between a girl's physique and a "matron's". My very thin friends somehow appear gaunt and wiry and tired, those with some healthy weight seem to glow.

Thank you, thank you, for adding so much to this conversation. Is "vegan" working as a weight loss vehicle for you? Mark Bittman of course lost many, many pounds with his "vegan until dinner" approach. I know that the first time I gained weight, back in my 30s, was when I stopped eating meat. It's not fair to blame vegetarianism, it's just that I wasn't well-educated and switched to cheese as one protein source. That is terrific, go, go, go. And it really encourages me that I'm not alone in using both WW and Medifast as different tools at different times in our lives.

Your sister is a wise woman! If you're not used to caffeine, be careful using a full 2 cups of coffee to make the shake, it will, at least it did me, give you a bad-bad case of the shakes! Really interesting post - I'll be looking forward to hearing about your experiences going forward. Keep up the good work. Just for clarification, by "snack" I mean anything eaten between the three major meals. I define "treat" as cake, cookies, anything dessert-like.

I don't see popcorn as a treat so much, but carmel corn or any of the sweetened popcorns would be a treat. So a snack isn't necessarily a treat, but it could be. Your goal around "thinking about food less" really hit home for me. Any tips on how you reached this goal would be appreciated! I have been a lifetime member of Weight Watchers since , but spent a lot of that time over goal. Two years ago, I got back down to goal and am now working part time for Weight Watchers.

I agree that the importance of maintaining a healthy weight trumps other considerations. I believe everyone must do what works best for them. I am so glad that you are losing weight, becoming healthier and feeling better about yourself.

Losing weight is difficult, and maintaining a healthy weight is even more difficult. We constantly must start over and try new techniques. Good luck on your healthy living journey.

By the way, my husband and I enjoyed Chicken Sybil for lunch today. Alanna, so feel like we could be sisters. Have treasured this blog, along with Veggie Ventures for years. Have been on and off WW for almost 40 years. Still believe WW is best program if you take time to plan and follow program. Four years ago I was at my highest weight ever. My father in law had been on Medifast without telling us. He asked if I really wanted to loose weight.

I had been skeptical about packaged foods and cost. Yet when you really step back and think about it, it was skilled at buying ingredients with the best of intentions, changing plans, forgetting the recipe and then throwing away the food. Wasted food, larger clothes, and most importantly diminishing health can be even more costly than the MF plan. With thyroid issues, to ease my mind, I also checked with our family physician. He gave his seal of approval. Originally I questioned how some of the prepackaged "meals" could keep me full.

Like you, it took trial and error to find the meals I preferred. Tastes do change over time. Recommend reconsidering some of the items you did not like earlier.

I started Medifast in May and am approaching 60 pounds lost. This is my "mindless", stress management diet. I keep a variety of products well stocked so I can change my mind easily for each meal. Looking forward to maintenance, I can see Medifast as a quick option if those pesky 5 or so pound start to creep back on. I do believe that everyone is different and will champion any plan that works for someone as long as they are not compromising their health in the process. For me, going truly low carb makes a difference.

It irritates me to see all of the high carb options with WW and the many "healthy" frozen entrees by a number of brands. Wish they'd focus more on ramping up veggies and decreasing carbs. Enough of my Saturday morning rant. Thanks for being a blessing to so many of your readers.

Dear Alanna, I have only just "met" you having stumbled on your site while looking for a recipe. I am a Weight Watchers Lifer who after several false starts on WW finally lost over 70 lbs 8 years ago and have kept it off. What did I do differently my last time on WW? I had also heard the definition of insanity: Doing the same thing over and over again and execting different results.

Once I lost the weight it was always "Woo Hoo! This time was different. Then when I reached my goal weight 8 years ago I was so excited because I was finally able to start what I had set out to do when I joined. It was like I was finally in front of the door I had been waiting for for so long. I was going to start the maintenance program. And I have never looked back.

If you think you can eat a lot on WW when losing weight, you should see what Maintenance looks like! I wish you much success on Medi Fast but if you ever end up back on WW you might want to consider my strategy. Thank you for your great blogs and your enthusiasm for healthy food and for including WW points in your recipes. There's a big difference between my goal and my current reality.

The goal was to really step away from food, to stop reading about it, to stop writing about it and definitely to stop cooking it and thus going through the constant consideration of What's in the fridge? The reality is that I got away from that last but not away from the first ones, you'd think they would have been the easier ones! I'm still a work-in-progress on this regard but I am slowly filling my time with non-food interests again. How would you do it? I am happy that official WW people are finding what I'm doing to make sense, if only for awhile.

Your words really made my day, thank you. I'm so glad you wrote. I know it's because my practice was to do 18 points a day most days, then relax on the weekends. And that system worked for me for about four years! Thanks for sharing Alanna. I lost 50 pounds thru attention to diet and exercise a few years ago but still had about 50 to go.

You have inspired me to try medifast. Thank you for posting your experience and being so honest and forthcoming. I'm a WW life-timer and loyal to the program. I've been hesitant to post a comment because I did not want to appear as a troll or as negating others' experience. That's not my intention.

So, that said, here is my concern One's overall health status and underlying medical conditions can be at the heart of being unable to maintain a healthy weight.

I understand the struggle with weight loss and maintenance. After all, I didn't end up in Weight Watchers because I ate healthy and exercised regularly. However, I've often struggled since attaining my goal weight. Some times, I wasn't faithful to the program, and that is correctable. It's these times that a physician, not a new weight loss plan, was my best course of action. So, my intention is to encourage your readers to evaluated their own health and visit their doctor prior to adopting a new diet if they think it might be necessary.

I, too, needed a change from Weight Watchers. I am a lifetime member, but currently over my desired weight. I tried WW several more times, with no success I decided on Jenny Craig for many of the same reasons, and I am finding the change was a good one. As a real-food cook, I was worried, but the meals are tolerable, and once I got past the first week of starving, even cooking for my family is ok--they were kind enough to eat dinners out the first week!

I worried about all the processed food and still do , so I was glad to hear the friend's advice that the important thing is to lose the weight and keep it off. I do the Jenny 5 day plan loosely , which gives me 6 meals a week on my own, with their guidelines. I sometimes do more than 6 on my own, but have plenty of Jenny meals and snacks in the freezer for back up. I agree--find something that works for you in this stage of your life. There's another way to lose weight and lower your risk of diabetes and heart disease, as well as most other common diseases of aging, but it requires a complete paradigm shift-- to being fueled by fat, not carbs.

In this way you can keep your blood sugar low and consistent without having to "eat" every hours. And I think you're totally right to be suspicious of highly processed food-- it's not food! Look at what humans have been eating for most of our time on this earth-- it wasn't grains or sugars, and it sure as heck wasn't processed food. The longterm health risks of a carb-fueled, processed-food diet are still significant, even if you lose weight.

And starving yourself is not the answer. You'll lose weight with calorie-restricted carb-based diets, but it will always come back. I've been eating this way low carb, meats, veggies, nuts, seeds, fruit, all real unprocessed food for two years and have never felt better.

Best wishes to you and thanks for a great source of wonderful veggie recipes! Alanna, Three years ago, I reached that very low place where my weight was at an all time high, and I was no longer chubby but FAT. I, too, knew many people who were successful on Medifast. I considered the plan for months before I dove in. I was on Medifast for almost 6 months, and lost 31 lbs. Considering the fact that I lost 7 lbs.

I went on a cruise, celebrated my daughter's high school graduation, and never deviated once. I reached a very happy goal weight of lbs. As soon as the holidays came, I started to fall off the wagon. I did not do a good job transitioning and making the permanent changes necessary. I am sad to say that I am starting again on Medifast tomorrow, and I am not sure how long I will last, or how I will do. I have a limited supply of foods remaining from past orders, so I want to use them up and not order anything new, but I will see how it goes.

I think I have enough for at least a month or two. I wish you luck in the transition and maintenance phase. It is truly the hardest part. I just switched to Medifast myself, which is something I said I would never do, but I just could keep joining WW time after time and failing.

I needed something different, and so far so good. Of course I would rather be eating whole foods, but I have tried that way too many times with little success I will continue this until I am at goal. I also know that I will have to do what I am told if I am to maintain. With weight, indiscretions are visible to all. I wanted to thank you for posting your switch from WW to Medifast. After reading your decision, I started to investigate and found out all I could about MF.

I started my journey in February and am now down 40 pounds. I have more to go, but this is the first time in 30 years I have been able to stick to a diet long enough to be successful. So again, I thank you. But, like you said, I wasn't working the program. I hate how they change it every year so nothing is consistent anymore. Plus, I'm food obsessed. WW was too permissive because I could anything and this made me push the "anything" boundary until those choices were unhealthy and I'd "make up" for it by making more unhealthy choices to compensate.

What I love about MF so far is I just don't think about food anymore. I eat to fuel. I can't wait to get to goal so I can enjoy real food again and I hope that this "reprieve" from my obsession with food may help me develop a different mindset about food in my future. I was reluctant to try it--and I don't share that I'm doing MF with many people--because in a way I feel like I gave in to something "easy" or that I'm cheating in this weight loss.

Except, it's not easy, it just seems to be working. If so, how is that going? I have been doing Medifast on my own and lost 60 pounds so far. I loose and average of three a week! A's book explains how you CAN do medifast without buying the food! This allows you to eat Organic non processed food AND it gives a better option for people with Soy issues or prefer to stay Vegetarian! One of the best ways I have found to stay motivated is to blog diymydiet I love reading about other people who are successful against the "fat" battle!

Thanks for all the info and the super detailed post! I have had the same problem as you with ww. I am lifetime but I feel like all I do is think about food when I'm on it. I have been feeling like a sell-out to good health for considering mf so I really appreciate your honest input. I am going to give it a try! And btw, your comments to others are always so kind and considerate.

Thank you for being such a lovely voice on the internet when we are barraged with so much ugliness! I think that I started to put on weight again after losing 30 pounds on WW in beginning in when I started writing A Veggie Venture. Thank you for the reminder. PS You put your concern so very gently, no worries about sounding like negative or like a troll! Figuring out what works for each one of us, what a revelation. I hear such good things about this whole approach. I think it would be an easy transition for me And down 40 pounds, whoa!!

Thanks for adding your experience! And good luck, it takes commitment, of course, every program does. I found your blog because of the WW recipes and was so excited. Disappointed that you're eating crap instead of real food. You realize you can't maintain that for the rest of your life, right? I went back to real food in March and using principles learned from Medifast, have stayed at my goal weight with little issue.

I was interested in your journey and also happy to see you are now on maintenance and doing well. I too did the WW thing in I was able to slowly lose, but then hit a plateau and was unable to lose down to my goal no matter how diligent or how much exercise I did.

After abandoning the WW plan, I regained all but ten pounds. I now believe I'll reset my goal to 50 as I feel it is attainable. I don't like all the Medifast food either, however I do like most of it. I appreciate never feeling hungry and all the support the TSFL community gives.

It's the easiest weight reduction program and most successful I've every tried. Not only have I had success, but also my 2 daughters, daughter-in-law and my best friend are losing steadily or on transition. It really is wonderful to have so many of us helping each other. My coach is great too! Good for you taking off the weight and keeping it off.

I detested counting points and was always hungry on WW. Every day I say to myself or others "this is so easy I can't believe it. You have your own Medifast support group going on there! Hi Alanna - checking back here. Thanks for your input regarding the continuing journey! I have found out it really helps me to read inspirational stories of success. I have attended the TSFL meeting that was held locally - it is so much fun to hear the passion that people have to tell how losing weight has changed their life.

It was amazing to me that some of the people are even dietitians and health professionals! One was even the director of "Be Fit" for our state and found out that exercise alone does not a slender person make! I was especially happy to hear the men that spoke. I have some men in my life that could use this program! I am almost ready to go into transition now. I plan to follow the "rules" and add back gradually - I believe I'll be using some MF meals to help me stay at my goal weight even on maintenance.

One last note - it sure is more fun to go shopping now! Yes yes and yes again! Congratulations on reaching the transition point, yes, so empowering it is to take control. Just FYI - keep your shopping in check, my experience with both WW and Medifast is that it takes a couple two or three or even six months for your body to settle into its new size and shape. I started Medifast after my father died of an obesity related heart condition.

I lost a lot of weight, got to a lower size then I had ever been as an adult and felt I went from lb to in about a year. I seem to be an all or nothing kind of person. I have gained back 50lbs and feel terrible.

I am terrified to do medifast again thinking it will work in the short term but not in the long run, but then again maybe I woudl finaly learn to transition and eat healthy after. So scared to make a choice on what to do McDonalds and ice cream. I dont even like this food, I just dont know how to stop.

I had a beautiful garden this year and ate very little of it because I was so out of control with yucky food that nothing healthy sounds remotely appetizing. Just not sure what to do. I hope that someday, when "your" time is right again, that the memory of feeling so fantastic will help you make a choice. My belief is that "all" the legitimate weight-loss programs work: Maintaining the weight, no matter the weight-loss program, is the real trick.

I think WW teaches healthy-eating habits, whether or not you count points. I think Medifast does not teach you what "is" healthy food but does have important lessons about the timing of food intake. Good luck with your journey, my heart goes out to you. I can "hear" the tears and frustration. Just checked back in and found your update on your MediFast post.

You inspire me to try yet again to take off those unwanted 25lbs and keep them off for good. I am considering MF I will have to read more about it on their website.

I am pre diabetic and you are right the risks are too high to wait any longer. Wishing you continued success! It feels a little bit like "paying it forward". Let me know, please? Thanks for your story! I did Medifast several years ago through the guidance of my physician. I checked in weekly, weighed, took my blood pressure, etc. My blood pressure lowered, my cholesterol went down where it should have been and I felt amazing. I lost over 50 pounds with Medifast.

Afterwards, I went to WW to learn to maintain.

INTRO NUMBER ONE: The Dr Phil Effect.