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Learn more about invitation keys. CETO is a wave power technology that desalinates seawater using submerged buoys. These calculations do not include the energy required to construct or refurbish items consumed in the process.

Cogeneration is generating excess heat and electricity generation from a single process. Cogeneration can provide usable heat for desalination in an integrated, or "dual-purpose", facility where a power plant provides the energy for desalination. Alternatively, the facility's energy production may be dedicated to the production of potable water a stand-alone facility , or excess energy may be produced and incorporated into the energy grid.

Cogeneration takes various forms, and theoretically any form of energy production could be used. However, the majority of current and planned cogeneration desalination plants use either fossil fuels or nuclear power as their source of energy. Most plants are located in the Middle East or North Africa , which use their petroleum resources to offset limited water resources.

The advantage of dual-purpose facilities is they can be more efficient in energy consumption, thus making desalination more viable. The current trend in dual-purpose facilities is hybrid configurations, in which the permeate from reverse osmosis desalination is mixed with distillate from thermal desalination. Basically, two or more desalination processes are combined along with power production. Such facilities have been implemented in Saudi Arabia at Jeddah and Yanbu.

A typical Supercarrier in the US military uses nuclear power to desalinate 1,, L of water per day. Costs of desalinating sea water infrastructure, energy, and maintenance are generally higher than fresh water from rivers or groundwater , water recycling , and water conservation , but alternatives are not always available. More than half of the cost comes directly from energy cost, and since energy prices are very volatile, actual costs can vary substantially. Factors that determine the costs for desalination include capacity and type of facility, location, feed water, labor, energy, financing and concentrate disposal.

Desalination stills control pressure, temperature and brine concentrations to optimize efficiency. Nuclear-powered desalination might be economical on a large scale. While noting costs are falling, and generally positive about the technology for affluent areas in proximity to oceans, a study argued, "Desalinated water may be a solution for some water-stress regions, but not for places that are poor, deep in the interior of a continent, or at high elevation.

Unfortunately, that includes some of the places with biggest water problems. Thus, it may be more economical to transport fresh water from somewhere else than to desalinate it. In places far from the sea, like New Delhi , or in high places, like Mexico City , transport costs could match desalination costs.

Desalinated water is also expensive in places that are both somewhat far from the sea and somewhat high, such as Riyadh and Harare. By contrast in other locations transport costs are much less, such as Beijing , Bangkok , Zaragoza , Phoenix , and, of course, coastal cities like Tripoli. In December , the South Australian government announced it would build a seawater desalination plant for the city of Adelaide, Australia, located at Port Stanvac. The desalination plant was to be funded by raising water rates to achieve full cost recovery.

The facility would produce , cubic metres of drinking water per day, enough to supply about , homes. Poseidon Resources made an unsuccessful attempt to construct a desalination plant in Tampa Bay, FL, in The board of directors of Tampa Bay Water was forced to buy the plant from Poseidon in to prevent a third failure of the project. The facility reached capacity only in In , a Energy Recovery Inc. These structures can have the same impacts to the environment as desalination facility intakes [ according to whom?

According to EPA, water intake structures cause adverse environmental impact by sucking fish and shellfish or their eggs into an industrial system. There, the organisms may be killed or injured by heat, physical stress, or chemicals. Larger organisms may be killed or injured when they become trapped against screens at the front of an intake structure. The Kwinana Desalination Plant opened in Perth in Desalination processes produce large quantities of brine , possibly at above ambient temperature, and contain residues of pretreatment and cleaning chemicals, their reaction byproducts and heavy metals due to corrosion.

To limit the environmental impact of returning the brine to the ocean, it can be diluted with another stream of water entering the ocean, such as the outfall of a wastewater treatment or power plant. With medium to large power plant and desalination plants, the power plant's cooling water flow is likely to be several times larger than that of the desalination plant, reducing the salinity of the combination.

Another method to dilute the brine is to mix it via a diffuser in a mixing zone. For example, once a pipeline containing the brine reaches the sea floor, it can split into many branches, each releasing brine gradually through small holes along its length. Mixing can be combined with power plant or wastewater plant dilution. Brine is denser than seawater and therefore sinks to the ocean bottom and can damage the ecosystem. Careful reintroduction can minimize this problem. Typical ocean conditions allow for rapid dilution, thereby minimizing harm.

Some methods of desalination, particularly in combination with evaporation ponds , solar stills , and condensation trap solar desalination , do not discharge brine.

They do not use chemicals or burn fossil fuels. They do not work with membranes or other critical parts, such as components that include heavy metals, thus do not produce toxic waste and high maintenance. A new approach that works like a solar still, but on the scale of industrial evaporation ponds is the integrated biotectural system.

One of the advantages of this system is the feasibility for inland operation. Standard advantages also include no air pollution and no temperature increase of endangered natural water bodies from power plant cooling-water discharge. Another important advantage is the production of sea salt for industrial and other uses. Increased water conservation and efficiency remain the most cost-effective approaches in areas with a large potential to improve the efficiency of water use practices.

A proposed alternative to desalination in the American Southwest is the commercial importation of bulk water from water-rich areas either by oil tankers converted to water carriers, or pipelines. Desalination removes iodine from water and could increase the risk of iodine deficiency disorders.

Israeli researchers claimed a possible link between seawater desalination and iodine deficiency, [65] finding deficits among euthyroid adults exposed to iodine-poor water [66] concurrently with an increasing proportion of their area's drinking water from seawater reverse osmosis SWRO. Due to the nature of the process, there is a need to place the plants on approximately 25 acres of land on or near the shoreline.

Thermally-driven desalination technologies are frequently suggested for use with low-temperature waste heat sources, as the low temperatures are not useful for many industrial processes, but ideal for the lower temperatures found in desalaination. Diesel generators commonly provide electricity in remote areas. Connecting a thermal desalination technology such as membrane distillation system to the diesel engine exhaust repurposes this low-grade heat for desalination.

The system actively cools the diesel generator , improving its efficiency and increasing its electricity output. This results in an energy-neutral desalination solution. Originally stemming from ocean thermal energy conversion research, low-temperature thermal desalination LTTD takes advantage of water boiling at low pressure, even at ambient temperature.

This water is pumped through coils to condense the water vapor. The resulting condensate is purified water.

LTTD may take advantage of the temperature gradient available at power plants, where large quantities of warm wastewater are discharged from the plant, reducing the energy input needed to create a temperature gradient. Experiments were conducted in the US and Japan to test the approach. In Japan, a spray-flash evaporation system was tested by Saga University. In October , Saltworks Technologies announced a process that uses solar or other thermal heat to drive an ionic current that removes all sodium and chlorine ions from the water using ion-exchange membranes.

The Seawater greenhouse uses natural evaporation and condensation processes inside a greenhouse powered by solar energy to grow crops in arid coastal land. Adsorption-based desalination AD relies on the moisture absorption properties of certain materials such as Silica Gel. One process was commercialized by Modern Water PLC using forward osmosis , with a number of plants reported to be in operation.

The idea of the method is in the fact that when the hydrogel is put into contact with aqueous salt solution, it swells absorbing a solution with the ion composition different from the original one. This solution can be easily squeezed out from the gel by means of sieve or microfiltration membrane.

The compression of the gel in closed system lead to change in salt concentration, whereas the compression in open system, while the gel is exchanging ions with bulk, lead to the change in the number of ions.

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