The condition of a bladder open to the esophagus is called physostome , the closed condition physoclist. The bulbus arteriosus connects to the aorta , through which blood flows to the gills for oxygenation. Sharks, rays, chimaeras , lungfishes , surviving chondrosteans , holosteans , and even a few of the more primitive teleosts have a spiral valve or at least traces of it in the intestine. The red myotomal muscles derive their colour from myoglobin , an oxygen-binding molecule, which tuna express in quantities far higher than most other fish. Unlike the scales of the cartilaginous fishes, those of bony fishes, when present, grow throughout life and are made up of thin, overlapping plates of bone.
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