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The wolf was deemed a threat to ranching, which the Meiji government promoted at the time, and targeted via a bounty system and a direct chemical extermination campaign inspired by the similar contemporary American campaign. This isn't like Atkins where you're wolfing down bacon by the pound, and frankly I am sorely missing a good rack of ribs or a porterhouse, but since you're not cutting out whole macro food groups you will be able to enjoy protein. Retrieved March 16, Throughout this article, the term "wolf" will be used to refer collectively to naturally occurring subspecies, especially the nominate subspecies, Canis lupus lupus. List of gray wolf populations by country. The standardized multi-center protocol is an approach used in many large-scale multi-center studies funded by the NHLBI.
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These elements are included in many types of exercise. The type of exercise you do depends on your symptoms and challenges. For sedentary people, just getting up and moving is beneficial. More active people can build up to regular, vigorous activity.
Many approaches work well to help maintain and improve mobility, flexibility and balance to ease non-motor PD symptoms such as depression A mood disorder whose symptoms can include a persistent sad or empty mood, feelings of hopelessness or pessimism, irritability and loss of interest or pleasure in previously enjoyable activities.
Researchers in the study did not distinguish between what type of exercise participants did and determined that all types of exercise are beneficial. The most important thing is to do the exercise regularly. We suggest find an exercise you enjoy and stick with it. Seek out local PD exercise classes. In areas where wolves inhabit pastoral areas, the parasites can be spread to livestock.
Wolves are often infested with a variety of arthropod exoparasites, including fleas , ticks , lice , and mites. The most harmful to wolves, particularly pups, is Sarcoptes scabiei or mange mite ,  though they rarely develop full blown mange , unlike foxes. Ticks of the genus Ixodes can infect wolves with Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.
Other ectoparasites include biting lice, sucking lice and the fleas Pulex irritans and Ctenocephalides canis. Endoparasites known to infect wolves include protozoans and helminths flukes , tapeworms , roundworms and thorny-headed worms.
Of 30, protozoan species, only a few have been recorded to infect wolves: Isospora , Toxoplasma , Sarcocystis , Babesia , and Giardia.
Upon reaching maturity, Alaria migrates to the wolf's intestine, but harms it little. Metorchis conjunctus , which enters wolves through eating fish, infects the wolf's liver or gall bladder, causing liver disease , inflammation of the pancreas, and emaciation.
Most other fluke species reside in the wolf's intestine, though Paragonimus westermani lives in the lungs. Tapeworms are commonly found in wolves, as their primary hosts are ungulates, small mammals, and fish, which wolves feed upon. Tapeworms generally cause little harm in wolves, though this depends on the number and size of the parasites, and the sensitivity of the host. Symptoms often include constipation , toxic and allergic reactions , irritation of the intestinal mucosa , and malnutrition.
Infections by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus in ungulate populations tend to increase in areas with high wolf densities, as wolves can shed Echinoccocus eggs in their feces onto grazing areas.
Wolves can carry over 30 roundworm species, though most roundworm infections appear benign, depending on the number of worms and the age of the host. Ancylostoma caninum attaches itself on the intestinal wall to feed on the host's blood, and can cause hyperchromic anemia , emaciation, diarrhea , and possibly death.
Toxocara canis , a hookworm known to infect wolf pups in utero, can cause intestinal irritation, bloating, vomiting, and diarrhea. Wolves can tolerate low levels of Dirofilaria immitis for many years without showing any ill effects, though high levels can kill wolves through cardiac enlargement and congestive hepatopathy. Wolves probably become infected with Trichinella spiralis by eating infected ungulates.
Nicolla skrjabini , Macrocantorhynchus catulinus , and Moniliformis moniliformis. Human presence appears to stress wolves, as seen by increased cortisol levels in instances such as snowmobiling near their territory.
Old English literature contains several instances of Anglo-Saxon kings and warriors taking on wulf as a prefix or suffix in their names.
Wolf-related names were also common among pre-Christian Germanic warriors: Ancient Greek literature is similar: Autolycus "the wolf itself" , Lycurgus "wolf-work".
The Latin for "female prostitute" is lupa , and the most famous brothel in Pompeii was the Lupanar. The wolf is a common motif in the foundational mythologies and cosmologies of peoples throughout Eurasia and North America corresponding to the historical extent of the habitat of the gray wolf.
The obvious attribute of the wolf is its nature of a predator , and correspondingly it is strongly associated with danger and destruction, making it the symbol of the warrior on one hand, and that of the devil on the other. The modern trope of the Big Bad Wolf is a development of this.
The wolf holds great importance in the cultures and religions of the nomadic peoples, both of the Eurasian steppe and of the North American Plains. In many cultures, the identification of the warrior with the wolf totemism gave rise to the notion of Lycanthropy , the mythical or ritual identification of man and wolf. Aesop featured wolves in several of his fables , playing on the concerns of Ancient Greece 's settled, sheep-herding world.
His most famous is the fable of The Boy Who Cried Wolf , which is directed at those who knowingly raise false alarms, and from which the idiomatic phrase " to cry wolf " is derived. Some of his other fables concentrate on maintaining the trust between shepherds and guard dogs in their vigilance against wolves, as well as anxieties over the close relationship between wolves and dogs.
Although Aesop used wolves to warn, criticize and moralize about human behavior, his portrayals added to the wolf's image as a deceitful and dangerous animal. Although portrayed as loyal, honest and moral, Isengrim is forever the victim of Reynard's wit and cruelty, often dying at the end of each story. The tale of Little Red Riding Hood , first written in by Charles Perrault , is largely considered to have had more influence than any other source of literature in forging the wolf's negative reputation in the western world.
The wolf in this story is portrayed as a potential rapist , capable of imitating human speech. Tolstoy's War and Peace and Chekhov's Peasants both feature scenes in which wolves are hunted with hounds and borzois. Although credited with having changed popular perceptions on wolves by portraying them as loving, cooperative and noble, it has been criticized for its idealization of wolves and its factual inaccuracies.
The wolf is a frequent charge in English armory. It is illustrated as a supporter on the shields of Lord Welby , Rendel , and Viscount Wolseley , and can be found on the coat of arms of Lovett and the vast majority of the Wilsons and Lows. The demi-wolf is a common crest , appearing in the arms and crests of members of many families, including that of the Wolfes , whose crest depicts a demi-wolf holding a crown in its paws, in reference to the assistance the family gave to Charles II during the battle of Worcester.
Wolf heads are common in Scottish heraldry , particularly in the coats of Clan Robertson and Skene. The wolf is the most common animal in Spanish heraldry , and is often depicted as carrying a lamb in its mouth, or across its back.
It is the unofficial symbol of the spetsnaz , and serves as the logo of the Turkish Grey Wolves. Livestock depredation has been one of the primary reasons for hunting wolves, and can pose a severe problem for wolf conservation: Being the most abundant carnivores, feral and free-ranging dogs have the greatest potential to compete with wolves.
A review of the studies in the competitive effects of dogs on sympatric carnivores did not mention any research on competition between dogs and wolves. Wolves kill dogs on occasion, with some wolf populations relying on dogs as an important food source. Wolves may display unusually bold behavior when attacking dogs accompanied by people, sometimes ignoring nearby humans.
Large hunting dogs such as Swedish elkhounds are more likely to survive wolf attacks because of their better ability to defend themselves. Although the numbers of dogs killed each year are relatively low, it induces a fear of wolves entering villages and farmyards to take dogs. In many cultures, there are strong social and emotional bonds between humans and their dogs that can be seen as family members or working team members. The loss of a dog can lead to strong emotional responses with demands for more liberal wolf hunting regulations.
Dogs that are employed to guard sheep help to mitigate human—wolf conflicts, and are often proposed as one of the non-lethal tools in the conservation of wolves.
The fear of wolves has been pervasive in many societies, though humans are not part of the wolf's natural prey. Predatory attacks attacks by wolves treating humans as food may be preceded by a long period of habituation , in which wolves gradually lose their fear of humans.
The victims are repeatedly bitten on the head and face, and are then dragged off and consumed, unless the wolves are driven off. Such attacks typically occur only locally, and do not stop until the wolves involved are eliminated.
Predatory attacks can occur at any time of the year, with a peak in the June—August period, when the chances of people entering forested areas for livestock grazing or berry and mushroom picking increase,  though cases of non-rabid wolf attacks in winter have been recorded in Belarus , Kirov and Irkutsk oblasts, Karelia and Ukraine.
The majority of victims of predatory wolf attacks are children under the age of 18 and, in the rare cases where adults are killed, the victims are almost always women.
Cases of rabid wolves are low when compared to other species, as wolves do not serve as primary reservoirs of the disease, but can be infected by animals such as dogs, jackals and foxes. Incidents of rabies in wolves are very rare in North America, though numerous in the eastern Mediterranean , Middle East and Central Asia. Wolves apparently develop the "furious" phase of rabies to a very high degree which, coupled with their size and strength, makes rabid wolves perhaps the most dangerous of rabid animals,  with bites from rabid wolves being 15 times more dangerous than those of rabid dogs.
Most rabid wolf attacks occur in the spring and autumn periods. Unlike with predatory attacks, the victims of rabid wolves are not eaten, and the attacks generally only occur on a single day. The victims are chosen at random, though the majority of cases involve adult men. In the half-century up to , there were eight fatal attacks in Europe and Russia, and more than in south Asia. Wolves are difficult to hunt because of their elusiveness, sharp senses, high endurance, and ability to quickly incapacitate and kill hunting dogs.
This method relies heavily on the wolf's fear of human scents, though it can lose its effectiveness when wolves become accustomed to the smell.
Wild wolves are sometimes kept as exotic pets and, in some rarer occasions, as working animals. Although closely related to domesticated dogs , wolves do not show the same tractability as dogs in living alongside humans, and generally, much more work is required in order to obtain the same amount of reliability.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Gray wolf. This article is about the gray wolf, canis lupus , and its subspecies. For other species of wolf and other uses, see Wolf disambiguation. For other uses, see Grey Wolf disambiguation. Middle Pleistocene — present , years BP . Linnaeus , . Subspecies of Canis lupus. Evolution of the wolf.
List of gray wolf populations by country. Wolves in folklore, religion and mythology. Wolf attacks on humans and List of wolf attacks. Wolf hunting and Wolf hunting with dogs.
Human uses of hunted wolves. Wolves as pets and working animals. However, neither dogs nor dingoes are referred to as gray wolves. Throughout this article, the term "wolf" will be used to refer collectively to naturally occurring subspecies, especially the nominate subspecies, Canis lupus lupus.
This terminology was first used in by Rudolf Schenkel of the University of Basel , who based his findings on researching the behavior of captive gray wolves. This view on gray wolf pack dynamics was later popularized by L.
David Mech in his book The Wolf. He formally disavowed this terminology in , explaining that it was heavily based on the behavior of captive packs consisting of unrelated individuals, an error reflecting the once prevailing view that wild pack formation occurred in winter among independent gray wolves.
Later research on wild gray wolves revealed that the pack is usually a family consisting of a breeding pair and its offspring of the previous 1—3 years. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Tomus I in Latin 10 ed. Retrieved November 23, Gray wolf Canis lupus and allies", in Feldhamer, George A. Wild Mammals of North America: Grey wolf Canis lupus Linnaeus, , pp.
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Archived from the original PDF on June 21, A Complete Guide to Heraldry. By Frank Cruz on July 29th, By Frank Cruz on June 03rd, By Frank Cruz on May 20th, By Frank Cruz on May 10th, By Frank Cruz on April 07th, By Israel Lagares on March 25th, By Susan Gernhart on March 22nd, By Frank Cruz on March 18th, By Israel Lagares on March 11th, By Elizabeth Perez on March 11th, By Israel Lagares on March 09th, I was overweight since the.
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