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The Perfect Teeth of Prehistoric Humans
Some of the structural material can be used to generate energy internally, and in either case it is measured in Joules or kilocalories often called "Calories" and written with a capital C to distinguish them from little 'c' calories. The visible sign of plaque was a hard white deposit on teeth along the gum line made by a film infected with harmful bacteria. Archived from the original PDF on August 24, Some diets were eaten cooked and others eaten raw. In humans, an unhealthy diet can cause deficiency-related diseases such as blindness , anemia , scurvy , preterm birth , stillbirth and cretinism , [2] or nutrient excess health-threatening conditions such as obesity [3] [4] and metabolic syndrome ; [5] and such common chronic systemic diseases as cardiovascular disease , [6] diabetes , [7] [8] and osteoporosis. It was the major force in the evolutionary diet; it expressed itself many times in human development throughout the millennia. Because science has an incomplete understanding of how food affects the human body, Pollan argues, nutritionism can be blamed for many of the health problems relating to diet in the Western World today.

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Stewart Truswell Kenneth Carpenter. Page 1 of 5. Next page Nutrition in plants. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Regulation of fertility level and nutrient balance. Potash and nitrogen, and the balance between the two, may affect the incidence of certain bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases of corn, cotton, tobacco, and sugar beet.

A number of microelements, including…. Puppies need three basic things in order to thrive: Puppies need to eat three or four times a day from the time they are weaned until they are about six months old. Thereafter they can be fed…. Nutrition involves balance between feeding habits of larval and adult flies. Primary feeding occurs during the larval stage. Adult feeding serves to compensate the shortcomings of larval nourishment.

At one extreme are nonbiting midges, with larvae that vigorously filter microorganisms from water. For stabled horses, the diet generally consists of hay and grain.

The animal should not be fed immediately before or after work, to avoid digestive problems. Fresh water is important, especially when the horse is shedding its winter…. Animal sciences animal feed In feed dogs In dog: Nutrition and growth feeding behaviour In human sensory reception: Food choice higher animals In feeding behaviour: From the EFAs of nutritional science, we turn to the EFAs of lipodomics for the final contribution to our study of why prehistoric humans had such good dental health.

Lipidomics explains the very complex biochemistry and functions of EFAs and their eicosanoids-docosanoids system. They also maintain physiological stability by controlling a large number of body functions. Some examples are regulation of blood pressure, gastric mucosal secretion, and gestation and parturition in pregnancy. The eicosanoid control system governs the biochemistry by which health or disease is determined. Lipid mediator imbalance caused by dietary excesses of omega-6 EFAs is involved in the development of essentially all chronic inflammatory diseases.

Lipidomics tells us that prehistoric humans evolved with this very elaborate control system that constantly monitored the body for any sign of anything abnormal. This was a self-healing system that was constantly working on maintenance and repair.

It was responsible for protecting not only the health of his mouth and teeth but also his whole body. This splendid self-healing system, like prehistoric man himself, was the product of the restricted-carbohydrate and bountiful omega-3 EFAs nutrition of the hunter-gather life.

Lipidomics discovered the marvelous self-healing system with which man evolved from research on chronic inflammatory diseases. Lipidomic study of inflammatory processes revealed countless very complex and never-before-known biochemicals synthesized from EFAs that eventually could only be explained by the prehistoric self-healing system.

The degeneration of the remarkable prehistoric self-healing system apparently occurred with the change from hunter-gatherer nutrition to that of plant-based agriculture exemplified by the early Egyptian civilization. The self-healing system is generally unrecognized today because it does not function in people who have flawed nutrition. With proper and dedicated nutritional treatment, lipidomics is proving that the system can be revitalized. Charles Serhan, who began his postdoctoral career with Dr.

Samuelson prior to the Nobel award, has been the principal investigator during the long journey through very complex lipid biochemistry to final acceptance of the new science of lipidomics, a branch of the larger discipline of metabolomics. In , Serhan published a seminal paper discussing a decade of progress in eicosanoid research and announcing discovery of lipid mediators of endogenous anti-inflammation and resolution 9.

Once thought to be merely a passive process, resolution healing of inflammation was shown by the work of Serhan and colleagues to be an active biochemical process that does not occur automatically but must be initiated in order to proceed. They were new pro-resolving lipid mediators.

The biochemical mechanisms for prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases are extremely complex and difficult for all but scientists working in the field to comprehend. In simplest terms, inflammation is the result of a dietary imbalance of EFAs and their lipid mediators. An existing chronic inflammatory disease will progress unabated until the contributory nutritional failing is remedied. Until that time, the body makes every effort to make repairs with what materials it has available.

It is in this period that scar tissue or the equivalent, depending on the tissue involved, is formed in an attempt to stop damage. It is not until the body is provided with ample dietary EPA and DHA, the lipid mediators described above, inflammation will begin to diminish and healing will commence. These discoveries are tremendously important because they describe the nutritional need for these essential fatty acids and explain the biochemical processes that end inflammation, initiate healing, protect involved tissues, control pain, and return damaged tissues to homeostasis 8.

Periodontal diseases are chronic inflammatory diseases initiated by bacterial infection of the oral protective film and mucosa of the mouth. Dental disease, as with all inflammatory diseases, is a failure of pathways of resolution to heal the infected biofilm and mucosa and return them to homeostasis. Healing cannot occur if the body does not have available in the diet the lipid mediators described by Serhan. Anti-inflammatory and proresolving mechanisms are the only successful approach to prevention or elimination of dental diseases.

As biochemical science became more acquainted with the emerging science of lipidomics, the obvious similarity between omega-3 essential fatty acids and Activator X became obvious to scientists versed in organic chemistry.

The first part of the statement does not appear to be in accord with a careful reading of Nutrition and Physical Degeneration 1 ; however, that the second part is obviously wrong is explained by organic chemistry.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids are notoriously subject to oxidation. An iodometric titration, as employed by Price, is used currently to quantitate oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids in lipid emulsions It is unfortunate that once erroneous information is disseminated to an accepting public, it is difficult to correct.

Vitamin K 2 is important in calcium metabolism and can help prevent or reverse tissue deposition of calcium, but it is deceptive to credit it with the power of Activator X to heal inflammatory diseases. It is evident that Activator X was actually this small class of EFAs, each designed to respond to a specific manifestation of inflammation.

The perfect teeth of prehistoric humans are illustrative of a miracle of life about which the average person of today is totally unaware, namely our inborn, steady-state, self-healing system. It is not just responsible for maintaining a healthy mouth but also for healing any and all chronic inflammatory diseases that afflict the body. The main reason that self healing is not recognized in modern society is that it seldom seen because it requires optimal nutrition to work.

Prehistoric humans also were not aware of the wonderful self-healing system within themselves, but they benefited from its existence because they had no choice. Their nutrition, like themselves, was prescribed by their environment. The evolutionary diet was the diet that described the optimum nutrition for humans. The development of perfect prehistoric teeth, however, had its beginning much earlier in life — actually at birth. The quality of dental health in the prehistoric neonate depended, as it does in modern babies, on the kinds of oral microorganisms, protective or harmful, transferred to them.

The oral biofilms of prehistoric neonates were formed with a predominance of friendly, protective microorganisms that were representative of the average of the tribe.

Finally, perfect prehistoric teeth would not have been achievable without the existence of the anti-inflammatory, pro-resolution, lipid mediator system that constantly monitored and mended occasional insults.

Shortly after completion of this article, the following conclusion appeared in a research abstract in the June 26 issue of the Journal of Dental Research In this randomized controlled trial, aspirin-triggered DHA supplementation significantly improved periodontal outcomes in people with periodontitis, indicating its potential therapeutic efficacy. Maybe you can help convince me, one way or the other! Many thanks, Raphi, for your kind words and your thoughtful comments.

We hope we can answer your concerns. It is a great and valuable resource for nutritional science. As a start, vitamin K1, the most available of the K vitamins, displays no Activator X activity at all. The best dietary sources of vitamin K2 as MK-7 , which does mimic the tooth remineralization effect of Activator X, are fermented foods and hard cheeses.

Some K1 may be converted to K2 in the body, but recent data indicate that K2 must be consumed preformed. He did note that a few of the 14 groups employed fermentation as a preservative, but apparently fermented foods had no place in his judgments about Activator X. We also do not recall that cheeses played a significant role in primitive diets or in the diets he designed for his clinical trials. Butter is the complete milk fat saturated plus unsaturated designed by nature for total support of survival and growth of neonates during their first few months of life.

Plant seed oils have mega-concentrations of omega-6 linoleic acid and no, or insignificant, concentrations of omega-3 DHA. It is critical for people interested in their health to know that omega-3 essential fatty acids are almost exclusively animal fats; to avoid consumption of vegetable oils; and to be aware of the amount of their intake of omega-3 EFAs.

Nevertheless, for the interplay to work, carbohydrates must be restricted, the omega-6 to omega-3 ratio must be balanced, and micronutrients, such as vitamins A, D, and Ks, must be adequate to supply the materials needed for maintenance and repair.

Sorry, but we cannot evaluate that because we have no idea if Masterjohn has any interest in or knowledge of the eicosanoid-docosanoid system mechanisms. Not many docs know this in my experience so I doubt the public will any time soon. Also, this is the problem with WAPF: Nonetheless, I chose it hehe! When we were writing the first edition of our book, it was commonly accepted that the Delta-6 Desaturase D-6 D enzyme was a very sluggish enzyme.

D-6 D is the first step in the metabolic chain of the EFAs. It works on both omega-6 linoleic acid and omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid to remove 2 adjacent hydrogen atoms and replace them with a double bond. If the D-6 D reaction does not work well, the metabolites produced lower down in the chain will be meager or absent.

At the time of our first edition, it was estimated that a person would have to increase their intake of alpha-linolenic acid by fold in order to get adequate EPA and DHA. In the second edition of our book, we therefore recommend classifying EPA and DHA as essential fatty acids 1, pp , You are right that most docs do not know this, but apparently neither do the Paleo-fitness folk.

We thought of K2 primarily as a calcium-tissue blocker. It prevents deposition of calcium in soft tissues, notable in blood vessels and cardiac valves. Thus, we cannot help you with any references you require. Ottoboni A, Ottoboni F. Although I became toothless by age 25 better with no teeth than rotting ones and dental topics hold no interest.

Do not worry about the dental part of the post. Instead read from the Lipodomics section through to the end. This will describe the self-healing system we all have within us. It works for ALL chronic inflammatory diseases.

It can only help you. You are right about flax oil — very high omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid ALA compared to omega-6 linoleic acid LA. Flax seeds and fax oil are exceptions, along with chia seeds, to the proscription against seed oils. There is a problem, though. It appears as though there is only one omega-3 fatty acid that can counter the inflammatory effect of linoleic acid. That one is EPA. To be on the safe side always take an amount of fish oil or krill if you prefer equal to that of flax oil along with the flax oil.

The villainous nature of LA is its carcinogenicity. You are absolutely correct, and it is an extremely important observation. See the response to your last comment. My wife suffered from persistent gum disease over a 5-year period. She dreaded the dentist and no matter what medicine and treatment they provided, nothing stopped the steady deterioration of her gums. Reluctantly at first because of her media-driven fear of Fat. Well, lo and behold, her last visit to the dentist, 6 months after the nutritional switch, left her and her dentist dumbstruck!

Her gums were totally rejuvenated with only minimal signs of any previous distress. The dentist actually called her staff in to witness the improvement. No one could believe it. My wife explained the dietary shift and they all shook their heads in disbelief. Bless you, Joe, for sharing your story of the wonderful relief from gum disease your wife experienced after changing to a LCHF GF diet.

You will never know how many people you will have helped by telling your story. It is not only dental problems but the whole host of chronic inflammatory diseases including reversal of type-2 diabetes that the body can cope with and repair if given the right nutrition. This college offers three Doctor degrees. The first degree is the Doctor of Philosophy in Holistic Natural Health, in which the students will take advanced natural health courses.

The second degree is the Doctor of Philosophy in Holistic Nutrition. This school offers a Doctor of Science in Holistic Nutrition. The program links holistic nutrition, environmental science, public policy, and nutrition effects on organ systems all together. This school offers a Doctor of Philosophy in Holistic Health. After completing this program, the graduate is trained in how to correct body system imbalances using healing methods. The Doctor of Philosophy in Holistic Nutrition is offered here.

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Weston A. Price