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This sort of reasoning has been used to justify such practices as experimentation that uses animals, raising animals for food, and using animals for our entertainment in such places as rodeos and zoos. Nevertheless, the broad trends indicate a growing shortage of workers in the most economically advanced nations, which will act as a counter-weight to the increasing number of working age youth in developing countries. Although most adults drink one to two litres about one to two quarts of water a day, much of this is in the form of liquids such as coffee, tea, fruit juices, and soft drinks. One of them is that they stood up to be able to see over tall grass. It focuses on the relationship of matter and energy and the structure of subatomic particles, atoms and molecules, which are the building blocks of matter.

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I wouldn't suggest trying beef liver as a substitute, as it seems to be extremely rich and causes some cats to vomit. If you buy whole rabbit, usually the amount of liver that comes with the meat is the amount you need.

Some raw diets for cats include vegetables, so why don't you use them? That said, there are lots of different ways to prepare raw diets. I advocate keeping anything out of the diet that is not species-appropriate.

I also work with many people who have cats with inflammatory bowel disease, and as I often note, these cats are the feline equivalent to the "canary in a coal mine," being the first to exhibit problems when anything that is not appropriate to their species is in the diet.

Some people add pumpkin, squash, and other vegetables as a fiber source. That's fine if your cat is okay with it. I certainly don't have the monopoly on the only correct or acceptable way of feeding raw to cats. This site merely reflects what I've found works best and what it is that I've come to understand is a way of feeding cats that makes good sense.

I'm confused about glandular supplements--what should I buy? You're looking for a supplement that contains actual glands--not a supplement that contains herbs or plants designed simply to enhance glandular health in humans, which may contain herbs or other plants. In other words, the ingredient list on what you buy should say things like "thyroid, thymus, adrenal etc.

By the way, if you use that link? You get a sweet discount on your first order from iHerb. What kind of B-complex vitamin do you use? Can I substitute cod liver oil for salmon oil? Salmon oil is in the recipe to provide a rich and bioavailable source of Essential Fatty Acids and cod liver oil is not a substitute. Can I make this diet using fish? After all, my cat loves fish. Can I feed fish please, Anne? There are just too many arguments against feeding fish regularly to make it a safe, healthy choice as a staple of a cat's diet.

As a treat once in a great while? But know a few things first. There are a number of problems--some well established facts and others that are somewhat open to question--that make feeding fish regularly, whether raw or cooked, pretty gosh darn inadvisable.

At least from the digging I've done. The problems stem from both what's in fish and what's not in fish. So far, I count eight distinct 'strikes' against the idea of feeding fish, raw or cooked, to cats. Whole fish, even with bone, is far too low in calcium for a cat. You have some wiggle room here, but not much. A whole ground fish would be low in calcium. And while the high phosphorus is not good for any cat, elevated phosphorus levels are something you most definitely wouldn't want to feed a cat that is suffering from any kind of kidney problem.

Raw fish contains high amounts of an enzyme called thiaminase--an enzyme that destroys Vitamin B-1 thiamin. A thiamin-deficient diet can lead to neurological problems and seizures in cats. Fish, with its high magnesium content, can contribute to a type of urinary tract problem in cats. While I'm on urinary troubles, let me interject something here.

Curiously, the discovery some time back of magnesium as a culprit in feline urinary tract disorders was accompanied by the development of specialized 'urinary tract' formula foods. The idea with these foods was to add acid to the food, reasoning that magnesium crystals develop in alkaline, not acid urine. The problem is, cats whose urinary tract acid is too high are prone to another type of crystal--calcium oxylate. Just another reason it's best to feed a cat a diet that nature intended.

Elizabeth Hodgkins points out in her book , the rise of urinary tract diseases in the cat coincided exactly with the increasing use of dry kibble to feed cats. Heaven knows, cats absolutely adore the taste of fish.

Anyone who's ever opened up a can of fish within a city-block radius of any hungry feline knows that. But you can quickly end up with a 'fish addict' on your hands. And the last thing you need is a cat on a hunger strike refusing to eat anything but an inferior fish diet. There is a great deal of persuasive research suggesting that predatory fish those at the very top of the food chain and the same ones often found in pet food or used as 'treats' for cats have extremely high levels of heavy metals such as mercury--in addition to pesticides and other toxins.

A study published in Acta Neuropatholgica discovered neurological disturbances in young kittens fed daily with tuna containing the US FDA-approved level of mercury 0. Possible link to hyperthyroidism. A US Environmental Protection Agency EPA study in revealed a possible disturbing link between feline hyperthyroidism and the chemicals in fire retardants--that mimic thyroid hormones--and cats' consumption of canned food with fish.

In the study, cats eating canned fish were exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers PBDEs at levels five times higher than cats eating poultry or beef canned foods. Felines love tuna, but eating it long term can deplete a cat's stores of vitamin E and create conditions that lead to an extraordinarily painful condition called steatitis , with symptoms such as hypersensitivity to touch and loss of appetite. Huuuuuge bummer for the cat and for you. You'll find tuna in lots of cat foods for the very reason that it's tasty to cats and draws them to the food.

But it has nothing to do with healthy, safe, or necessary nutrition for cats. To my mind, it just makes little sense to feed something that is more likely to create a allergic reaction than something that isn't.

Jean Hofve wisely advises against feeding fish and suggests that it be reserved as a very occasional and special treat--certainly no more than once a week.

If you're determined to give your cat a treat once in awhile, go for something like small bits of dehydrated chicken liver or freeze-dried chicken hearts. But skip the fish. If you must give treats, make it from something that had fur or feathers, not fins. It's just much kinder to and safer for your carnivore. I thought this diet was attempting to reverse engineer a cat's natural prey. There are no Vitamin E or salmon oil capsules in a mouse, so what's the deal?

Darn it, you got me. Seriously, you're correct that this diet is an attempt to create a mouse. But because there are usually limits to what we have to work with to accomplish that, we have to find ingredients and supplements to make up for nutrients that are lost by virtue of the fact that we're not serving fresh, whole prey and are instead buying meat, processing it i. And in storing or freezing anything, you're going to lose some nutrients.

Remember too that even if you're buying a whole chicken carcass, you're still not serving a truly WHOLE carcass. The brains and eyes of a cat's prey, for example, supply a perfectly balanced ratio of Essential Fatty Acids.

Because most people aren't going be serving brains and eyes unless you've stumbled onto an awfully resourceful and accommodating butcher , we need to do the best we can to make up for it and, hence, the salmon oil. The Vitamin E is there to slow down oxidation of the meat which inevitably occurs once it's cut up or ground. Psyllium supplies soluble and insoluble fiber, such as might be found partly digested and in small amounts in the stomach of a cat's prey, without adding carbohydrates.

Extra Taurine is there to make up for what may get lost as a result of prolonged storage or freezing of muscle or organ meat.

The Winn Feline Foundation conducted an important study of raw rabbit diets for cats and learned that despite the high levels of Taurine in rabbit meat, cats fed this diet suffered from serious Taurine deficiencies.

The study posited that it was possible that the bacteria in the carcass of ground rabbits or in the intestines of the cat broke down some of the Taurine. Whatever the reason, because Taurine is such a critical amino acid for cats--both for their digestion as well as their heart function--adding extra to a cat's raw diet is very wise. Taurine is absolutely essential when it comes to steering clear of heart muscle failure in cats dilated cardiomyopathy , and is also important in preventing feline central retinal degeneration which can cause blindness in cats.

Finally, commercially raised meats are simply not as high in many of the nutrients of free-range, naturally-raised animals that are fed a truly species-appropriate diet.

Similarly, egg yolks are added to the recipe that I use because they supply such a truly "perfect protein" and are a very nice polish to the diet, particularly if that diet is prepared using something other than perfectly fresh, species-appropriate-fed meat. Obviously, feeding live mice, other rodents, or small birds that came from their natural environment is by far the best food for our carnivores. Since most of us aren't going to feed live, fresh prey, we are left in our kitchens to reverse engineer what they would get in that environment.

How much of the raw diet should I feed my cat? There is no one-size-fits-all answer. Often, cats first switched to raw will eat voraciously for a few weeks when they're first transitioned and then they level off. As a very rough guide, I can tell you that in my house, each adult cats eats about grams 7 ounces each day, split between two or three meals.

Okay, okay, more like four on days when I'm working from home because they won't tolerate anything less and Wilson knocks over lamps if I don't feed him when he thinks it's time. If you use the one-pint can-or-freeze jars to store your food, they hold about grams of food, so one container will last you two days if you have one cat. Unless your cat is different. Which he probably is!

Bear in mind that the weather, your cat's activity level, and mood all affect appetite. I found that when the weather gets cold, for example, my petite little female cat could easily eat almost twice as much as her big brother. Generally speaking, the rule of thumb is to put out as much food as your cat wants for 30 minutes, then take away what they don't eat.

Very quickly you'll learn what the right amount is for your cat. Don't make this part too complicated. I pull my hair out a little when I get emails asking for precise amounts to feed based on a cat's weight. I want to help you, I really do, but I don't know how much your cat should eat. So try the amount suggested above and judge from there. If your cat is overweight, see my page on feline obesity. If your cat is too skinny, feed more.

After well over a decade of feeding this diet to my cats, I've found their weight has been stable. And I definitely don't measure out or weigh what I feed at every meal -- I eyeball it. If they're really hungry, they'll ask for more food and usually get it. Particularly if Wilson knocks over a lamp.

That's when I surrender. If they don't eat the same amount one day as they did the previous, I just take it up. They seem to know what they need. That said, not all cats seem to regulate their intake wisely. Our Sidney-Beans, left to his own devices, would eat nonstop - literally until his stomach is so full that he throws up. So with him, I'm a little mindful that there's wisdom in a little portion control. The point is - every cat is different. If you have a kitten, remember that she is a voracious little carnivore eating machine and will need not only to be fed more times each day, but will eat more food per pound of body weight daily than an adult cat.

A kitten arrived in our lives in May , and the only answer I have when people ask, " How much food will I need to feed my kitten? Two to four times a day works well. Before I was working from home, I fed my own cats three times a day--once upon waking, again after I get home from work, and again before bedtime. Now that day servant to feline overlords, they eat quite a few smaller meals throughout the day. Or else Wilson breaks lamps.

We all do what we have to do. What about between-meal treats or snacks? I don't feed those very often, so I don't have a lot of suggestions. But if you're determined for your cat to have something like that now and again, look for dehydrated meat treats or another similar, cat-tasty, grain-free something. It's better not to go overboard on treats. Allow your cat's digestive system to get a rest between meals. I have to work long hours and my cat could go up to 12 hours without food.

Should I just leave some dry food out? A healthy cat can quite easily go a few extra hours without food. You'll come home to a hungry cat who will likely eat her meal with great gusto and gratitude. Remember, a cat in the wild isn't getting fed on a strict schedule. Giving the digestive system a rest without the cues of smelling food is a very, very healthy thing to do for your cat, though she may try and convey to you that this is not the case.

I read on another raw feeding website that the recipe and approach you use is only for toothless cats. In my opinion and experience - no. The website you're referring to is a staunch advocate of feeding only whole meats and the folks who put that website together are very much against using grinders to make cat food. Their reasoning, which I agree with to a point, is that teeth are the cats' grinders, and that caregivers who grind the food are denying cats the many health benefits of using their teeth to tear apart whole raw carcasses.

I am in full agreement with that. This website also claims that because f eeding ground food "encourages speedy gulping," the food arrives too rapidly into the cat's stomach and doesn't provide time for digestive acids to be fully excreted - potentially causing indigestion or irritation. I've said before that there are lots of great ways to successfully prepare and feed a raw diet to cats.

Because I get asked this question with increasing frequency, I'll offer here my reasons for grinding most but not all of the food: The meats we are using for cat food contain bones that are considerably larger than that found in a small cat's natural prey. The thigh bone of a chicken is considerably larger than the thigh bone of a mouse or a robin, for example.

To achieve the overall balance in a cat's diet, the approach is to serve different elements of the diet for different meals - raw meaty bones, then some muscle meat, then some organ meat - going for a general proportion of 80 percent boneless meat, 10 percent edible-sized bones, and percent organ meat without about half of that being liver.

My experience with most folks is that there is a strong preference for the convenience of having all the necessary elements of the diet in every meal, so as not to have to keep track of the various discrete ingredients.

Convenience isn't the only factor at play in feeding a cat, of course kibble is very convenient, after all , but convenience does tend to encourage people to stick with a new habit. The lion's share of individuals that I work with who are switching their cats to raw have cats that have been eating dry food most or all of their lives.

Many of these cats are addicted to the flavoring in dry kibble and the switch over to canned food, then raw, is often challenging and extremely frustrating for caregivers. Throwing in the additional expectation that Fluffy has to eat a whole carcass amplifies the challenge for the caregiver - and my goal is always first to get cats switched to a healthier diet canned at least, raw when possible and appropriate. So many people abandon the effort altogether when their cats won't switch from kibble to canned - I stand a much higher chance of helping people to make the transition to raw food if I don't up the ante by insisting that their former kibble addict eat a whole chicken leg.

I believe it's possible to meet much of a cat's need for the very healthy act of shearing and tearing and gnawing at raw meat by feeding large chunks of muscle meat regularly - presuming their oral health is up to snuff to be able to do that. More than a few website visitors have reported that their cat happily gnaws on a whole carcass a good thing!

I am just nervous enough about ensuring a cat gets a balanced diet - whether at each meal or over time - to be concerned that this kitty is getting too much meat and not nearly enough bone.

My concerns may be overblown, but I have to stay inside my comfort zone on this one. It has never been my experience, nor have I seen any studies to suggest, that a cat eating ground food doesn't produce sufficient digestive acid or is more prone to suffer from digestive upset. Quite the contrary - the effect that raw feeding has on a cat's overall digestive health is decidedly positive, at least based on my experience and that of others who have successfully used a raw diet to cure feline inflammatory bowel disease.

Believe me, I don't think grinders are "natural" either. But my hope is that my colleagues who take a different approach using the whole prey model can appreciate and respect my position - and what my own experience has taught me. I really do not believe there is only one right way to do this.

My hat is off to those who advocate other, healthy approaches to feeding cats that work. We agree on much more than we disagree! Like me, these folks have serious trepidation about some of the pre-made raw diets. I would respectfully take issue, however, with the notion that the food I make for my cats is a "a soppy pile of mush. We agree, too, that a cat's oral health is very much affected by diet. Dry food doesn't clean teeth - it never has and it never can.

I'm a big believer in taking whatever steps are necessary to protect and maintain a cat's dental health - including feeding chunks of muscle meat if kitty will eat them and having regular professional dental exams and cleanings when called for.

I have seen and known cats eating a fantastic diet that have lousy teeth - and I have seen and known cats eating horrible dry diets with no sign of any periodontal disease. I'm satisfied that my cats are getting an extremely balanced diet that reasonably mimics that which they'd catch, kill, and eat in the wild.

But I don't - and I suggest that you don't - dismiss the importance of texture as a core component to factor into the overall move toward a diet that imitates the whole eating experience mother nature designed them for. Is this diet appropriate for a diabetic cat or a cat with chronic kidney disease? Any special medical conditions a cat is facing should always be taken into account in considering switching a cat to a new diet.

I've read that kittens have special nutritional requirements and need higher protein-content foods; what ingredient adjustments do I need to make for feeding a kitten? This is a high protein diet appropriate for all 'life stages' - although, as I mention above, special adjustments and precautions may be necessary for cats with certain medical conditions.

Kittens are eating machines. Their daily food requirements, in terms of quantity, are higher. If you find yourself with a kitten and you're making home-prepared food, be prepared to make a lot of food. What steps are involved in making the transition to raw food for a kitten? Near as I can tell, it goes like this: Put the food on a plate and stand back.

Adjust your work hours, home chores, and really your entire life to account for the fact that since you're committed to making home-prepared food for the little bugger, you'll be needing to make it more often.

There are few things more satisfying than seeing a youngster get such a great start in life. They get pretty darn excited about raw food. Small, light, crumbly, and not smelly. Should I be concerned that my cat is drinking much less water since switching to the raw diet? It's especially noticeable in cats that were previously eating dry food. And that's exactly what happens when you feed a good, balanced raw diet.

You should, of course, still have fresh drinking water available for your cat at all times. My cat's stools are much smaller and lighter-colored than before. That's common, desirable, and expected. If you're not feeding your cat all kinds of poorly digestible or species-inappropriate ingredients such as vegetables and grains, then it stands to reason that your cat is going to produce less waste. A lot less waste. Really, you'll be flabbergasted.

Weird as it is, I've included a photo of a raw-fed cat's poop here. Indeed, that's how deeply I care about making sure you're well-informed on all aspects of raw feeding. I must be devoted to and passionate about making sure you understand the effects of raw feeding to photograph and measure stools.

I should consider financially supporting this website. Another of the more welcome surprises from raw feeding is the dramatic reduction in stool odor. While many vets are extraordinarily knowledgeable and gifted people, many of them have very little understanding of the basics of feline nutrition. Some have relied for years on advice or knowledge from the pet food industry and nutritional education has not been an integral part of their training. The genesis of this website was my open letter to vets which remains an impassioned plea to them to "try harder" on the issue of feline nutrition, a subject near and dear to my heart.

Diet should not be an afterthought in considering what's best for an animal's health, and to my mind, the pet food industry's advice is simply not an acceptable substitute for your veterinarian's critical thinking on an issue that's so terribly important. And do put some thought into the matter first--don't just listen to one person's advice or give a cursory read to one or two websites on the issue.

A very good place to start a discussion is by talking about the terrific JAVMA article on cats as carnivores that appeared in the December 1, edition of that professional journal.

That article does not explicitly advocate raw diets, but it offers extraordinarily sound reasoning on why and how feeding cats ingredients such as grains can be very detrimental to a cat's health. Starting the conversation there is a good place to begin, as you may find common ground on which you can build. If your vet hasn't sought out a copy of Dr. Elizabeth Hodgkins book - which, among things, is very supportive of a raw diet - then suggest it to your vet.

Or even better, spring for a copy and offer to donate it to the library in the vet clinic reception area.

Also, if you like, feel free to print off a copy of and share the "open letter to veterinary professionals" on this website. You'll have to judge if that's a good idea - some vets will be understandably skeptical of anything written by a lay person.

Their skepticism is not entirely unwarranted. I've seen some pretty appalling advice doled out on raw diets by lay people. But then again, I've seen some pretty dreadful advice doled out on raw diets and commercial diets by veterinarians. Some vets are, quite understandably, concerned that even if they think a raw diet is a good idea, their clients will not make the diet properly and will put their cats at risk for nutritional deficiencies. In this case, they are absolutely correct: Vets know that, but a big problem is that even if they theoretically support the idea of a raw diet, they aren't familiar enough with the basics of how to do it correctly to advise clients and default to suggesting a commercial diet.

People who leave out, for example, a calcium source in cat food or routinely ignore the basic principles involved in making and serving cat food correctly would be better off just feeding a quality canned diet.

If you're not going to make it correctly, then you shouldn't make it. But if you are going to make it correctly - which is certainly not a difficult thing to do - then calmly continue the discussion with your vet.

Remember, many vets reflexively dismiss the idea of raw diets out of hand out of genuine concern about the potential to do it wrong. Sadly, still others are passing on "urban legends" and scare tactics that are found in literature supplied by the pet food industry. If you are absolutely determined to make this diet and your vet still objects, then you may want to find another vet. If your vet raises concerns about bacteria, don't get defensive.

Instead, it may be worth reminding him or her that a cat has a much faster gastrointestinal transit time than humans or even dogs and is therefore much less susceptible to "food poisoning. Shouldn't I be worried about bacteria and parasites? Yes, a little, so take sensible precautions.

First of all, remember that cats are not humans and are not nearly as susceptible to the problems from eating raw meat that affect humans. A cat has a very fast gut transit time - about 12 hours compared to 35 to 55 hours in humans - which gives very little time for bacteria to multiply in the intestines. That said, no food you feed your cat is without risk. You'll have to decide if the potential risks from feeding raw food outweigh the long term risks to your animal's well being from feeding commercial food.

You have a good deal more control of what is going into your cat and the quality of each individual ingredient when you prepare your cat's food yourself.

Exercise that control responsibly. When possible, try to procure meats from free-range sources as the bacterial counts and the possibility for parasite contamination are considerably lower in meats from animals raised in better conditions.

One of my favorite online essays on this subject is available here. Don't leave the raw food sitting out for hours at a time. Offer your cat her food and after 30 minutes, dispose of anything that is left behind. Take the same precautions handling raw meat for your cats as you would for yourself and your family.

Clean all surfaces that touched raw food thoroughly. Wash your hands after preparing or serving the meals to your cats. Don't let small children have access to your cat's raw food. Wash your hands thoroughly after cleaning the litter box, too. And remember, it's not just cats that eat raw food who can pass Salmonella through their feces.

That said, I have never seen any data to suggest that cats on raw food have more Salmonella in their feces than cats on canned or dry food. Salmonellae has been found in commercial pet food too. Moreover, in August , the Journal of the American Veterinary Association published an article noting that a good number of healthy dogs and cats carry Salmonella, but this does not necessarily equate to any clinical disease.

Two Kids Or Too Many? There are almost million Egyptians already, and on current trends there will be 23 million more by The birthrate in Singapore plummeted from 4. How Kenyan Women Live with Profound Childbirth Injuries Across the world, there is an estimated two million women and girls who live with vaginal fistulas. There are up to new cases each year.

In Kenya, at least new cases are reported annually but research shows that only 7. By , Kenya only had three internationally renowned fistula surgeons and less than 10 surgeons who could perform simple obstetric operations. One in five girls worldwide is estimated to be married before the age of 18, including even in parts of the United States. At births per 1, women aged , South Sudan has one of the highest rates of adolescent pregnancy in the world.

South Sudan also has one of the world's worst maternal mortality rates at deaths per , life births. Did God kill Onan because he wasted his seen and spilled it on the ground? They just read snippets. This leads to people dreadfully misinformed about biblical events. Judah got a wife for Er, his firstborn, and her name was Tamar. What Happens When Abortion is Banned? In Brazil, where abortion is all but banned, experts estimate there are about a million illegal abortions each year; around half of them are induced using abortion drugs.

In the 45 years since Roe v. Wade legalized abortion, states have enacted more than 1, anti-abortion laws. Half of the abortions in the United States take place among women below the federal poverty line. However, in most developing countries, change is not occurring fast enough and funding for this cause is inadequate. Worldwide, approximately one in five girls under 18 are married or in a union and many are already mothers.

Now that the economic costs are clear, this is a good time to address the problem. Ensuring access to safe, quality education is a key to ending child marriage.

Girls must be given the tools for success. In order for this cause to be successful rich countries must join the fight. Justin Trudeau, the Canadian Prime Minister, has vowed to make gender equality a theme in discussions with other G7 ministers.

Even though the number of girls married is declining each year, change is occurring too slowly. If the world does not act now and invest more in this cause, population growth will overtake gains and the number of child brides will be on the rise again. The Berkeley City Council addressed the issue of over-population as it relates to global warming in its declaration of a climate emergency.

The author called it a "breakthrough" that CO2 emissions are being considered, not only as a per capita function, but also as a function of the number of people doing the emitting.

In the campaign to reduce emissions the role of population has largely been ignored. Hybrid cars, solar energy, and using gas instead of coal are often the main topics of discussion. The world now has 7. This isn't the case, however, CO2 emissions now measure 36 billion tons. This is largely due to countries with large populations, like China, becoming industrialized.

China is now the world's largest emitter at 10 billion tons of CO2 annually. Assuming half the world is still agrarian and half is industrialized, the author hypothesized that emissions will fall to that level only if the world's population decreases to 2. For this reason, professional environmentalists advocate for both family planning and per capita carbon reducing.

The need to reduce population is often denied because many think it interferes with economic growth. In fact regions often pursue growth to stimulate their economies. In fact, "growth without end-point is unsustainable. This would effect expand the middle class and eliminate some of the factors associated with social and political instability. To erase inequality, all women should have access to health care, proper nutrition, and safe and effective learning environments throughout the educational process.

Also important are upholding sexual and reproductive rights and combating sexual and gender-based violence, including harmful practices like child, early or forced marriage. Women need to be given access to land ownership, credit, insurance, and savings, and the social norms that "relegate" women to lower paid professions need to be changed.

It is imperative that the priorities of women be put at the forefront of the consideration of all governments and international entities. Canada is one country that has done this with its Feminist International Assistance Policy that seeks to ensure equal rights and economic opportunities for all women and girls. Another initiative that addresses inequality is the Women Entrepreneurs Finance Initiative, which is based at the World Bank and supported by 14 governments.

It loans money to women-owned or women-led businesses in developing countries. A recent Wilson Center event focused on the development of a more resilient world through sustainable development. And, he believes "tailored education campaigns" are necessary for change. One of the biggest hurdles to achieving resilience is water security. Water is essential for life, and each person in the developed world uses enough water to fill an Olympic swimming pool every year.

As the population grows so does the demand for water. The ongoing water crisis in Pakistan, where the population is predicted to reach million by , "has brought the population issue also on to the table," said Zeba Sathar of the Population Council.

Changing farms to feed families is another way to contribute to the stability of communities. Seventy percent of water usage goes to food production, so Africare is encouraging farmers to plant drought-resistant plants to feed livestock.

And, to address the problem of population growth exceeding food supply, family planning is being promoted along with changes in agricultural practices that increase nutritious food production. Displacement due to extreme weather has caused additional instability in undeveloped regions.

In Nigeria droughts have contributed to this problem, and in Pakistan flooding has led to destroyed homes and livelihoods. Zeba Sathar reported that the African Union has seen success "linking the reduction in fertility, and favorable birth spacing patterns, with a demographic dividend Jason Bremmer of Family Planning believes that to achieve resilience "it is really critical that we understand these interlinked challenges and we find new ways of doing business, as business as usual - standard family planning programs, our standard efforts of reaching communities with water and environmental issues - are going to be further stressed.

Since the last edition 20 years ago , soil loss and land degradation have increased dramatically, and the the new findings highlight an urgent need to correct land usage worldwide.

Worldwide, a total area of half the European Union is degraded annually. Soil degradation for the EU alone costs tens of billions euros a year. An uptick in deforestation makes it difficult to minimize climate change.

And, by , million people are estimated to be displaced due to land issues. On the global level, under the United Nations' Sustainable Development Agenda, world leaders have committed to "combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world" by Local solutions and cooperation are also needed.

Increasing farming yields, changing to plant based diets, and eating animal proteins from sustainable sources only are advised locally. Many in undeveloped countries like Kenya relied on that aid to provide women with birth control.

Without it many cannot afford contraceptives, are becoming pregnant, and are then resorting to backstreet abortions to terminate the pregnancy. In Kenya, where abortion is illegal, Khadijah Dija used to visit a family clinic to get free injectable birth control every three months.

She is still bleeding a month after taking the pills. Wilson Bunde of Family Health Options Kenya FHOK reports that women who were coming to clinics for contraceptives are now coming to be treated for botched abortions instead.

That forced FHOK to stop offering free or reduced cost contraception, close a clinic, and cut a community outreach program. Because of those cuts, Bunde estimated that 36, women went without family planning last year. The Mexico City policy, otherwise known as the 'global gag rule', has been in place on and off since President Ronald Reagan introduced it in Generally over the years, it has been rescinded by Democratic administrations and reinstated by Republicans, but it has never before been applied to this extent.

A Stanford University study found that, when the Mexico City policy is in place, women were up to 2. Trump is also considering similar changes in the US. Recently his administration proposed a new rule that would bar abortions or abortion advice at facilities receiving federal family planning funds. Those who don't comply would lose federal funding. It would be a domestic version of the global gag policy. Jennifer Molidor, writer, professor, and wildlife advocate, said that "there's no such thing as sustainable beef with our current rates of consumption and its impact on the planet.

The beef industry has been trying to convince us that beef is the new "eco-friendly" food. The USRSB's framework "lacks transparency and teeth needed to hold beef producers responsible for the damage they do to our land, water, air, climate. The truth is the beef industry is riddled with waste and is a model of inefficiency. The average American's annual hamburger appetite adds up to 1, pounds of carbon dioxide equivalents C02e 2, 2.

To gain a pound, a cow has to eat about 6 pounds of feed. Grass-fed beef requires about five times more water to produce than industrial beef.

The beef industry is currently pressuring the Environmental Protection Agency to do away with the Clean Water Rule, which hold farms accountable for polluting waterways, and are against pollution reporting requirements. Molidor believes that "a lot can be done to make meat production less destructive to the climate. However, the only way to make the beef industry truly sustainable is for consumers to eat less and decrease production. India's first census counted million people in - one-seventh of the world's population.

Nearly 9 million kids had married before age The population was projected to grow by , per year. How could India feed all those people?

Better to sterilize anyone with three or more kids. Sterilization seemed simple, safe, cheap, and effective. Chagla, a former ambassador to the U. It must be voluntary. The police "literally dragged people in from the fields to the vasectomy table," one medical officer told the New York Times.

In all, more than 6 million people were sterilized that year, causing violent protests and stalled measures to reduce birth rates for decades. The population now is nearly 1. India has been more successful at reducing death rates than fertility rates.

Since the sterilization policy began, growth has vastly exceeded projections. An old man stated that when he was a boy a cholera epidemic would kill up to 50 people in his village every ten years. I have lived here almost 70 years. The biggest change in my time has been health. We've learned how to keep from dying. Today, programs have returned to incentives. But in the district of Bilaspur, a sterilization procedure sickened 60 women and killed Authorities first charged the doctor for failing to sterilize the sterilization instruments.

But the doctor blamed "the village quacks who gave them antibiotics. However, according to USA Today, the doctor, who was trying to meet the demands of sterilization quotas mandated by local authorities, had spent only minutes on each patient, doing 83 surgeries in six hours.

The course first covers respiratory diseases and the exercises which patients can perform to maintain or gain back their health, then shifts to a discussion of immune related diseases such as cancer. Clinical considerations, pathophysiology, and exercise training are described. The course also discusses disorders of bone and joints, as well as select neuromuscular disorders.

Finally, the course discusses special populations, including children, older adults, people with clinical depression, and people with intellectual disabilities. Within each topic, clinical considerations are factored in and the exercise training is described. The final examination asks students to read a series of case studies and respond to questions on each one in paragraph form in order to demonstrate mastery of the materials. This course is designed to introduce the structures of human anatomy and explain how these structures are involved in human movement.

Numerous illustrations and optional opportunities for are provided to enhance the learning of human anatomy. This is a science-based course covering background, theory, and research in the field of physical growth and motor behavior across the life span, as well as the practical application of these concepts.

The course begins with an introduction to changes in the body, from neurological to physiological and discusses what factors affect these changes. The course then focuses on motor control and development through every life stage. Sociocultural influences are described. Students learn how to assess these changes and understand their importance as a factor of human growth. This is a course for students with no prior background in the subject. The course begins with a background description of the field and continues with the history of the profession, then shifts to the actual role of the health education professional.

Focus is placed on the ethics, responsibilities, and required certifications one is required to have in the field. Students also learn about theories and planning models of health promotion. Additionally, the course teaches the setting for health education and promotion, as well as the agencies involved. Finally, the course covers the future of this growing field. This self-study course is designed to provide students with a broad survey of the important issues in the study of comparative politics.

Students will gain an understanding of world politics and political systems and compare issues and structures on a global level. Students conduct in-depth studies of individual countries focusing on theoretical frameworks to explore broad issues such as why some countries modernize more quickly and why some are more democratic and understand how local issues have a worldwide impact.

Students also explore how politics works on individual, group, national, and global levels. Throughout the course, students study political institutions and processes and learn to use critical thinking skills regarding the consequences of public policies. Students observe the international economy and how politics shape a nation's influence on the local and global levels.

Additionally, students learn about other countries, regions, and the world while asking fundamental questions about politics and government. This self-study course follows the Jewish immigration and settlement in the United States and covers the Jewish experience of Jewish immigrants, coming primarily from Eastern Europe and settling in the United States.

Jewish Art of Antiquity examines visual Judaism from the time of the settlement of the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, including major emphasis on Late Antiquity. This includes knowledge of the major archaeological finds from that period in both Israel and the Diaspora, and what makes each significant.

The exam presents a variety of interpretations of these pieces and analyzes the debates over various theories of interpretation. Social, political, and religious contexts are examined to better understand the meaning of the art. Comparisons are made between different works from the period. Special attention is given to the rabbinic view on art and specific types of art, and what level of influence the rabbis may have had over the producers of the art in this period.

It also covers the history of synagogue music for prayer and cantillation of the Bible and traces the development of the art of chazzanus and the folk song. Numerous Jewish cultures, both Ashkenazic and Sephardic will be discussed.

Students discover how Jewish music developed in different circumstances and ultimately examine how the music of the Orthodox community became what it is today. The exam surveys many of the tools in the mathematical toolbox, including concepts in data sets, number systems, algebra, geometry, logic, graphing, probability and statistics. At each stage, students are expected to apply these tools to analytically solve problems.

Familiarity with the basics of arithmetic, algebra and geometry is assumed, though the relevant concepts are reviewed where appropriate. College Algebra and College Geometry or demonstrable skills in those areas, such as superior scores on standardized tests in those areas.

This self-study course provides students with a working knowledge of the most important basic concepts of probability and statistics by teaching methods of how data is sorted, characterized, visualized, and interpreted.

Students discuss important probability concepts such as events, sample spaces, conditional probability, and effects of multiple variables. This course introduces students to the exciting world of event planning, corporate meeting planning and conventions.

Topics include new trends and techniques. Case studies are explored. This self-study course explores the prevalence, symptoms, causes, and treatments related to major psychological disorders, including: Detailed case studies and concept checks help students examine and apply what they have learned. Unit objectives in this course are aligned with the American Psychological Association's Guidelines for the Undergraduate Major Version 2. This self-study course explores the history of psychology and major schools of thought.

From the Greek philosophers to the contributions of modern schools of thought such as evolutionary psychology, students explore important theoretical and methodological movements in psychology such as structuralism, functionalism, applied psychology, behaviorism, and psychoanalysis. Students evaluate the relative merits of each of psychology's approaches and deepen their knowledge of game-changing studies in the field.

The unit objectives in this course are aligned with the American Psychological Association's Guidelines for the Undergraduate Major, version 2. This self-study assesses students' knowledge of the role of the child in traditional Jewish society.

Students study the Biblical and Talmudic attitude towards children and child-rearing as well as some sources from Medieval times and how contemporary traditional authorities approach the subject within the contemporary milieu.

Special attention is focused on understanding how children played a specific and unique role in various times of persecution as well as the influence of youth movements in more recent times with relation to the general Jewish society.

Students will also discuss contemporary challenges, particularly the problem of at-risk youth in the traditional community. This self-study course is designed to introduce students to research methods in psychology. Students learn the goals and processes of research and descriptive and correlational approaches to research. After learning about the basic principles of experimentation and the concepts of reliability and validity, students plan and conduct simple and complex experiments using between- and within-group designs, small-n designs, and quasi-experimental designs.

The unit objectives in this course are aligned with the American Psychological Association's Guidelines for the Undergraduate Major version 2. This proficiency examination assesses students' knowledge of the Ba'al Teshuva movement which began in the second half of the Twentieth century as Jews returned to Orthodoxy and includes the perceived socio-historic challenges which the movement overcame, as well as those socio-historic factors which supported its development.

At the completion of the course, students will be able to relate the entry points to the movement, such as synagogues and Ba'al Teshuva institutions of study, discuss the challenges of recruitment, describe how the Ba'al Teshuva tends to adapt to Orthodox culture and focus on which aspects pose special challenges, describe the cultural stigmas that the Ba'al Teshuva carries in the Orthodox community and how such stigma can be dealt with and explore the impact that the Ba'al Teshuva movement has had on the general Orthodox community.

The proficiency examination also evaluates students' knowledge of the history, meaning, and social nuances of the Ba'al Teshuva movement, as well as the sociological terminologies associated with explaining it. This self-study course covers a variety of scientific disciplines that relate to the composition of Earth and its dynamic nature and position in space.

Introduction to Chemistry covers a variety of subjects that relate to the study of matter. The course deals with the impact of chemistry on daily lives. It focuses on the relationship of matter and energy and the structure of subatomic particles, atoms and molecules, which are the building blocks of matter.

The course also focuses on compounds, bonds and chemical reactions and the characteristics of various types of molecules, such as acids, bases and organic compounds.

Because it is anticipated that most Coopersmith students taking this course are doing so as part of preparation for a career in a healthcare-related field, the course has been designed to focus on knowledge and skills necessary for those entering health-related careers.

The course uses a self-study format and asks students to prepare for the proficiency exam by completing a course of study that includes reading assignments and video assignments as presented in the course syllabus. This self-study course explores the study of the life processes of all organisms and the life processes of human beings. It begins with some necessary background information about molecular and cellular structure and then moves into life processes, including nutrition, respiration, circulation, excretion and regulation and the maintenance of homeostasis, specifically in human beings.

May - July This self-study of the human diet contains substantial elements of biology and chemistry as they relate to course topics. Six classes of Nutrients Organic and Inorganic and their importance to a well-balanced diet, Sources of Important Nutrients and the value of obtaining these nutrients from certain foods, Impact of Physical Activity as it relates to Nutrition and Health, Nutrition-related diseases and disorders, Categories of people children and pregnant women and their need for special diets.

An as additional requirement to textbook readings and study guide; students participate in the MyNutrition Lab with diet analysis for a period of two weeks and turn in the report generated by the system. National College Credit Recommendation Service. Search Google Appliance Enter the terms you wish to search for. Search for an Organization: Search by Course Title: Overview Coopersmith Career Consulting , an NCCRS member since June , facilitates the preparation of nontraditional post-secondary students for careers that match their interests and abilities.

Spring Valley , NY Pathophysiology and Pharmacology SCI Fundamentals of Management BUS Introduction to Marketing BUS Introduction to Computers CIS Multimedia and the Web TCH Introduction to Baking CUL Foundations of Education EDU Early America to ENG Introduction to Statistics MAT

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