Effects of Kidney Failure on Body Systems


11 Largest Nutrition Lies in the Media
The rye is so precious that while being carried the heads are protected by wrapping them in canvas so that not a kernel will be lost. Does anybody recomend me to take creatine? Collectively, these studies demonstrate that screening identifies a substantial proportion of individuals with previously unrecognized, treatment-related health complications of varying degrees of severity. Cancer and cancer treatment result in a range of side effects, described as nutrition impact symptoms, that impede oral intake. Cancer increased 90 per cent from to Patients may also experience acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease GVHD. Since so many cattle were stall-fed in the thickly populated part of Switzerland, and since so low a proportion of the children used milk even sparingly, I was concerned to know what use was made of the milk.

Impediments to Adequate Nutrition


Marked mydriasis rather than miosis may be seen with hypoxia in overdose situations [see Clinical Pharmacology Give primary attention to the reestablishment of a patent airway and institution of assisted or controlled ventilation, if needed.

Employ other supportive measures including oxygen and vasopressors in the management of circulatory shock and pulmonary edema as indicated. Cardiac arrest or arrhythmias will require advanced life support techniques. Once stable, ensure examine the patient and ensure that all Duragesic Transdermal Systems have been removed.

The opioid antagonists, such as naloxone or nalmefene, are specific antidotes to respiratory depression resulting from opioid overdose. For clinically significant respiratory or circulatory depression secondary to fentanyl overdose, administer an opioid antagonist. Opioid antagonists should not be administered in the absence of clinically significant respiratory or circulatory depression secondary to fentanyl overdose. Because the duration of opioid reversal is expected to be less than the duration of action of fentanyl in Duragesic, carefully monitor the patient until spontaneous respiration is reliably reestablished.

Therefore, management of an overdose must be monitored accordingly, at least 72 to 96 hours beyond the overdose. In an individual physically dependent on opioids, administration of the recommended usual dosage of the antagonist will precipitate an acute withdrawal syndrome. The severity of the withdrawal symptoms experienced will depend on the degree of physical dependence and the dose of the antagonist administered. If a decision is made to treat serious respiratory depression in the physically dependent patient, administration of the antagonist should be initiated with care and by titration with smaller than usual doses of the antagonist.

Duragesic fentanyl transdermal system contains fentanyl, an opioid agonist, available as a patch for transdermal administration. The composition per unit area of all system sizes is identical. The molecular weight of fentanyl base is The pKa is 8. The chemical name is N-Phenyl-N- 1- 2-phenylethyl piperidinyl propanamide. The structural formula is:. Duragesic is a rectangular transparent unit comprised of a clear siliconized polyethylene terephthalate protective liner and two functional layers.

Proceeding from the outer surface toward the surface adhering to skin, these functional layers are:. Before use, a protective liner covering the adhesive layer is removed and discarded. Fentanyl is an opioid agonist. Fentanyl interacts predominately with the opioid mu-receptor. These mu-binding sites are distributed in the human brain, spinal cord, and other tissues. Fentanyl produces respiratory depression by direct action on brain stem respiratory centers.

The respiratory depression involves a reduction in the responsiveness of the brain stem respiratory centers to both increases in carbon dioxide tension and electrical stimulation. Fentanyl causes miosis, even in total darkness. Pinpoint pupils are a sign of opioid overdose but are not pathognomonic e.

Marked mydriasis rather than miosis may be seen due to hypoxia in overdose situations. In clinical trials of non-opioid tolerant subjects treated with Duragesic, 13 subjects experienced hypoventilation. In these studies, the incidence of hypoventilation was higher in nontolerant women 10 than in men 3 and in subjects weighing less than 63 kg 9 of Although subjects with prior impaired respiration were not common in the trials, they had higher rates of hypoventilation.

In addition, post-marketing reports have been received that describe opioid-naive post-operative patients who have experienced clinically significant hypoventilation and death with Duragesic. Hypoventilation can occur throughout the therapeutic range of fentanyl serum concentrations, especially for patients who have an underlying pulmonary condition or who receive concomitant opioids or other CNS drugs associated with hypoventilation.

The use of Duragesic is contraindicated in patients who are not tolerant to opioid therapy. Fentanyl causes a reduction in motility associated with an increase in smooth muscle tone in the antrum of the stomach and duodenum. Digestion of food in the small intestine is delayed and propulsive contractions are decreased. Propulsive peristaltic waves in the colon are decreased, while tone is increased to the point of spasm, resulting in constipation.

Other opioid-induced effects may include a reduction in biliary and pancreatic secretions, spasm of sphincter of Oddi, and transient elevations in serum amylase. Fentanyl produces peripheral vasodilation, which may result in orthostatic hypotension or syncope. Histamine assays and skin wheal testing in clinical studies indicate that clinically significant histamine release rarely occurs with fentanyl administration.

They also stimulate prolactin, growth hormone GH secretion, and pancreatic secretion of insulin and glucagon. Chronic use of opioids may influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, leading to androgen deficiency that may manifest as low libido, impotence, erectile dysfunction, amenorrhea, or infertility. The causal role of opioids in the clinical syndrome of hypogonadism is unknown because the various medical, physical, lifestyle, and psychological stressors that may influence gonadal hormone levels have not been adequately controlled for in studies conducted to date [see Adverse Reactions 6.

Opioids have been shown to have a variety of effects on components of the immune system in in vitro and animal models. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown. Overall, the effects of opioids appear to be modestly immunosuppressive. The minimum effective analgesic concentration will vary widely among patients, especially among patients who have been previously treated with potent agonist opioids.

There is a relationship between increasing fentanyl plasma concentration and increasing frequency of dose-related opioid adverse reactions such as nausea, vomiting, CNS effects, and respiratory depression.

In opioid-tolerant patients, the situation may be altered by the development of tolerance to opioid-related adverse reactions [see Dosage and Administration 2.

Duragesic is a drug-in-adhesive matrix designed formulation. Fentanyl is released from the matrix at a nearly constant amount per unit time. The concentration gradient existing between the matrix and the lower concentration in the skin drives drug release. Fentanyl moves in the direction of the lower concentration at a rate determined by the matrix and the diffusion of fentanyl through the skin layers. While the actual rate of fentanyl delivery to the skin varies over the hour application period, each system is labeled with a nominal flux which represents the average amount of drug delivered to the systemic circulation per hour across average skin.

While there is variation in dose delivered among patients, the nominal flux of the systems Following Duragesic application, the skin under the system absorbs fentanyl, and a depot of fentanyl concentrates in the upper skin layers. Fentanyl then becomes available to the systemic circulation. Serum fentanyl concentrations increase gradually following initial Duragesic application, generally leveling off between 12 and 24 hours and remaining relatively constant, with some fluctuation, for the remainder of the hour application period.

Peak serum concentrations of fentanyl generally occurred between 20 and 72 hours after initial application see Table 7. Serum fentanyl concentrations achieved are proportional to the Duragesic delivery rate. With continuous use, serum fentanyl concentrations continue to rise for the first two system applications.

By the end of the second hour application, a steady-state serum concentration is reached and is maintained during subsequent applications of a patch of the same size see Figure 1. Patients reach and maintain a steady-state serum concentration that is determined by individual variation in skin permeability and body clearance of fentanyl.

Continued absorption of fentanyl from the skin accounts for a slower disappearance of the drug from the serum than is seen after an IV infusion, where the apparent half-life is approximately 7 range 3—12 hours. Fentanyl plasma protein binding capacity decreases with increasing ionization of the drug. Alterations in pH may affect its distribution between plasma and the central nervous system.

Fentanyl accumulates in the skeletal muscle and fat and is released slowly into the blood. Fentanyl is metabolized primarily via human cytochrome P 3A4 isoenzyme system. In humans, the drug appears to be metabolized primarily by oxidative N-dealkylation to norfentanyl and other inactive metabolites that do not contribute materially to the observed activity of the drug. Skin does not appear to metabolize fentanyl delivered transdermally.

Moreover elderly patients may be more sensitive to the active substance than younger patients. A study conducted with the Duragesic fentanyl transdermal patch in elderly patients demonstrated that fentanyl pharmacokinetics did not differ significantly from young adult subjects, although peak serum concentrations tended to be lower and mean half-life values were prolonged to approximately 34 hours. In older pediatric patients, the pharmacokinetic parameters were similar to that of adults.

However, these findings have been taken into consideration in determining the dosing recommendations for opioid-tolerant pediatric patients 2 years of age and older. For pediatric dosing information, refer to [see Dosage and Administration 2.

Information on the effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of Duragesic is limited. Avoid use of Duragesic in patients with severe hepatic impairment [see Dosing and Administration 2. Information on the effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of Duragesic is limited. An inverse relationship between blood urea nitrogen level and fentanyl clearance was found.

Avoid the use of Duragesic in patients with severe renal impairment [see Dosing and Administration 2. The interaction between ritonavir, a CPY3A4 inhibitor, and fentanyl was investigated in eleven healthy volunteers in a randomized crossover study.

Subjects received oral ritonavir or placebo for 3 days. The ritonavir dose was mg three times a day on Day 1 and mg three times a day on Day 2 followed by one morning dose of mg on Day 3.

Naloxone was administered to counteract the side effects of fentanyl. The concomitant use of transdermal fentanyl with all CYP3A4 inhibitors such as ritonavir, ketoconazole, itraconazole, troleandomycin, clarithromycin, nelfinavir, nefazadone, amiodarone, amprenavir, aprepitant, diltiazem, erythromycin, fluconazole, fosamprenavir, verapamil, or grapefruit juice may result in an increase in fentanyl plasma concentrations, which could increase or prolong adverse drug effects and may cause potentially fatal respiratory depression.

Carefully monitor patients receiving Duragesic and any CYP3A4 inhibitor for signs of respiratory depression for an extended period of time and adjust the dosage if warranted [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions 5.

The potential effects of fentanyl on male and female fertility were examined in the rat model via two separate experiments. In the male fertility study, male rats were treated with fentanyl 0, 0. In the female fertility study, female rats were treated with fentanyl 0, 0.

Analysis of fertility parameters in both studies indicated that an intravenous dose of fentanyl up to 0. In a separate study, a single daily bolus dose of fentanyl was shown to impair fertility in rats when given in intravenous doses of 0.

Duragesic as therapy for pain due to cancer has been studied in patients. Individual patients have used Duragesic continuously for up to days. At one month after initiation of Duragesic therapy, patients generally reported lower pain intensity scores as compared to a pre-study analgesic regimen of oral morphine.

In the pediatric population, the safety of Duragesic has been evaluated in patients with chronic pain 2—18 years of age. Twenty-five patients were treated with Duragesic for at least 4 months and 9 patients for more than 9 months. Duragesic fentanyl transdermal system is supplied in cartons containing 5 individually packaged systems. See chart for information regarding individual systems.

Store in original unopened pouch. Inform patients that the use of Duragesic, even when taken as recommended, can result in addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death [see Warnings and Precautions 5.

Instruct patients not to share Duragesic with others and to take steps to protect Duragesic from theft or misuse. Inform patients of the risk of life-threatening respiratory depression, including information that the risk is greatest when starting Duragesic or when the dosage is increased, and that it can occur even at recommended dosages [see Warnings and Precautions 5.

Advise patients how to recognize respiratory depression and to seek medical attention if breathing difficulties develop. Inform patients that accidental exposure, especially in children, may result in respiratory depression or death [see Warnings and Precautions 5. Instruct patients to take steps store Duragesic securely and to dispose of unused Duragesic by flushing down the toilet [see Dosage and Administration 2.

Duragesic can be accidentally transferred to children. Instruct patients to take special precautions to avoid accidental contact when holding or caring for children. Instruct patients that, if the patch dislodges and accidentally sticks to the skin of another person, to immediately take the patch off, wash the exposed area with water and seek medical attention for the accidentally exposed individual as accidental exposure may lead to death or other serious medical problems. Instruct patients to refer to the Instructions for Use for proper disposal of Duragesic.

To properly dispose of a used patch, instruct patients to remove it, fold so that the adhesive side of the patch adheres to itself, and immediately flush down the toilet. Unused patches should be removed from their pouches, the release liners removed, the patches folded so that the adhesive side of the patch adheres to itself, and immediately flushed down the toilet.

Inform patients that deaths have occurred from accidental exposure to Duragesic Transdermal Systems discarded in the trash. Instruct patients to dispose of any patches remaining from a prescription as soon as they are no longer needed. Inform patients and caregivers that potentially fatal additive effects may occur if Duragesic is used with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants, including alcohol, and not to use these concomitantly unless supervised by a healthcare provider [see Warnings and Precautions 5.

Inform patients that opioids could cause a rare but potentially life-threatening condition resulting from concomitant administration of serotonergic drugs. Warn patients of the symptoms and signs of serotonin syndrome, and to seek medical attention right away if symptoms develop.

Instruct patients to inform their healthcare providers if they are taking, or plan to take serotonergic medications [see Warnings and Precautions 5. Inform patients to avoid taking Duragesic while using any drugs that inhibit monoamine oxidase. Inform patients that opioids could cause adrenal insufficiency, a potentially life-threatening condition. Adrenal insufficiency may present with non-specific symptoms and signs such as nausea, vomiting, anorexia, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, and low blood pressure.

Advise patients to seek medical attention if they experience a constellation of these symptoms [see Warnings and Precautions 5. Advise patients never to change the dose of Duragesic or the number of patches applied to the skin unless instructed to do so by the prescribing healthcare professional.

When no longer needed, advise patients how to safely taper Duragesic and not to stop it abruptly to avoid the risk of precipitating withdrawal symptoms. Warn patients of the potential for temperature-dependent increases in fentanyl release from the patch that could result in an overdose of fentanyl.

Instruct patients to contact their healthcare provider if they develop a high fever. Inform patients that Duragesic may cause orthostatic hypotension and syncope. Instruct patients how to recognize symptoms of low blood pressure and how to reduce the risk of serious consequences should hypotension occur e. Inform patients that anaphylaxis, including anaphylactic shock, has been reported with ingredients contained in Duragesic. Advise patients how to recognize such a reaction and when to seek medical attention [see Contraindications 4 , Adverse Reactions 6 ].

Inform female patients of reproductive potential that prolonged use of Duragesic during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated [see Warnings and Precautions 5. Inform female patients of reproductive potential that Duragesic can cause fetal harm and to inform their healthcare provider of known or suspected pregnancy [see Use in Specific Populations 8.

Advise patients that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with Duragesic [see Use in Specific Populations 8. Inform patients that chronic use of opioids may cause reduced fertility.

It is not known whether these effects on fertility are reversible [see Use in Specific Populations 8. Inform patients that Duragesic may impair the ability to perform potentially hazardous activities such as driving a car or operating heavy machinery.

Advise patients not to perform such tasks until they know how they will react to the medication [see Warnings and Precautions 5. Advise patients of the potential for severe constipation, including management instructions and when to seek medical attention [see Adverse Reactions 6 , Clinical Pharmacology Talk to your healthcare provider or pharmacist if you have any questions.

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Life-threatening Respiratory Depression Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression may occur with use of Duragesic. Accidental Exposure Accidental exposure to even one dose of Duragesic, especially in children, can result in a fatal overdose of fentanyl.

Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome Prolonged use of Duragesic during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated, and requires management according to protocols developed by neonatology experts. Cytochrome P 3A4 Interaction The concomitant use of Duragesic with all cytochrome P 3A4 inhibitors may result in an increase in fentanyl plasma concentrations, which could increase or prolong adverse drug effects and may cause potentially fatal respiratory depression.

Risk of Increased Fentanyl Absorption with Application of External Heat Exposure of the Duragesic application site and surrounding area to direct external heat sources, such as heating pads or electric blankets, heat or tanning lamps, sunbathing, hot baths, saunas, hot tubs, and heated water beds may increase fentanyl absorption and has resulted in fatal overdose of fentanyl.

Use of Table 1 for conversion to other analgesic therapies can overestimate the dose of the new agent. Overdosage of the new analgesic agent is possible [see Dosage and Administration 2. Oral morphine 60— — — — Intramuscular or Intravenous morphine 10—22 23—37 38—52 53—67 Oral oxycodone 30—67 In clinical trials, these ranges of daily oral morphine doses were used as a basis for conversion to Duragesic.

Use of Table 2 for conversion to other analgesic therapies can overestimate the dose of the new agent. The concomitant use of Duragesic and CYP3A4 inhibitors can increase the plasma concentration of fentanyl, resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects particularly when an inhibitor is added after a stable dose of Duragesic is achieved [see Warnings and Precautions 5.

After stopping a CYP3A4 inhibitor, as the effects of the inhibitor decline, the Duragesic plasma concentration will decrease [see Clinical Pharmacology If concomitant use is necessary, consider dosage reduction of Duragesic until stable drug effects are achieved.

Monitor patients for respiratory depression and sedation at frequent intervals. If a CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued, consider increasing the Duragesic dosage until stable drug effects are achieved.

Monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal. Vitamin E Bell peppers contain several Carotenoids, and Phytochemicals and mainly Beta-Carotene and provide you with amazing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits. Controls diabetes, Vitamin B6 is vital for the health of the nervous system.

Enzymes such as lutein help to protect the eyes from macular degeneration. Zinc Jalapenos help to manage your weight vitamin C acts as an antioxidant and aid to fight aging, Crucial to healthy tissue repair. Minerals such as Iron, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Zinc, Copper and Manganese play a role in promoting healthy red blood cells, strong bone development and nervous system function. Hydroxycinnamic Acids Anti-cancer effects due to their antioxidant power, consumption of beta-carotene has an inverse effect association with the development of colon cancer.

Beta-carotene reduces the deficiencies of vitamin A and has ability to restore vision. Phytochemicals in carrots helps in blood sugar regulation and improve immune function and delay the effects of aging. Manganese Zinc Reduces cancer risk, the soluble fiber in broccoli can draw cholesterol out of your body. Presence of Kaempferol reduces the impact of allergy-related substances on our body.

Sufficient amounts of Omega 3 Fatty Acids, which are renowned as an anti-inflammatory. Vitamin k and Calcium are important for bone health and prevention of Osteoporosis. Alpha-lipoic acid increases insulin sensitivity, lowers glucose levels, and prevents oxidative presence of Beta-Carotene reduces the risks for developing asthma. The cancer-fighting plant chemicals such as Isoflavones and Phytosterols are associated with reduced cancer risk. Magnesium Phytochemicals protect against heart disease.

Contain cancer-fighting plant chemicals such as Isoflavones and Phytosterols that are associated with reduced cancer risk. Presence of Saponins and Phytosterols help to lower cholesterol.

Antioxidants Health benefits Cauliflower. Beta-Carotene Fiber helps with weight loss satiety, and a healthy digestive tract, Choline that is vital for memory and learning as well.

Regular consumption of cauliflower minimizes the risk of various inflammation-mediated diseases including Obesity, Arthritis Mellitus, Ulcerative colitis and Diabetes. Magnesium Green beans decrease the risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease while promoting a healthy complexion, increased energy and overall lower weight.

Consumption of Vitamin K improves bone health by acting as a modifier of bone matrix Proteins, great source of Folic Acid intake that is needed for pregnant women against neural tube defects.

Flavonoids Extremely good for cardiovascular health, lower the oxidation of Cholesterol and reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. Sulfur compounds help in reducing and controlling blood pressure levels. Zeaxanthin Presence of vitamin A and Beta-Cryptoxanthin protect lung health. Squash contains Folate that can minimize the occurrence of neural tube defects and various birth defects during pregnancy. Presence of Folate prevents heart attacks.

Flavonoids known as Anthocyanins lower the risk of cardiovascular disease. Chlorogenic and Anthocyanins Acid function as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. This vegetable contains Potassium that plays an important role in intracellular electrolyte. Prevent various forms of cancer and works as a purifier for the blood. Presence of betaine helps to reduce depression. Nutrients such as Lutein and Zeaxanthin protect against macular degeneration.

Vitamin C Lettuce contains fiber and cellulose that improve digestion. Vitamin C and Beta-Carotene help to prevent the oxidation of Cholesterol. Decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus due to the presence of flavonols, flavanols and anthocyanins. Reference Range is the range of values for a physiologic measurement in healthy persons for example, the amount of creatinine in the blood, or the partial pressure of oxygen. It is a basis for comparison a frame of reference for a physician or other health professional to interpret a set of test results for a particular patient.

Some important reference ranges in medicine are reference ranges for blood tests and reference ranges for urine tests. Baseline Medical History is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions , either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information in this case, it is sometimes called heteroanamnesis , with the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and providing medical care to the patient.

The medically relevant complaints reported by the patient or others familiar with the patient are referred to as symptoms, in contrast with clinical signs, which are ascertained by direct examination on the part of medical personnel.

Most health encounters will result in some form of history being taken Diagnostic Test or Medical Test is a kind of medical procedure performed to detect, diagnose, or monitor diseases, disease processes, susceptibility, and determine a course of treatment. It is related to clinical chemistry and molecular diagnostics, and the procedures are typically performed in a medical laboratory. Vitals are body functions essential for life.

Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon. Medical Diagnosis is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs. Testing and Examinations - Software Testing Assessment Errors observation flaws Monitoring medicine is the observation of a disease, condition or one or several medical parameters over time. Transmitting data from a monitor to a distant monitoring station is known as telemetry or biotelemetry.

Bioinformatics are methods and software tools for understanding biological data. Body Burden Test Triage is the process of determining the priority of patients' treatments based on the severity of their condition.

Endopat non-invasive assessment of Endothelial Dysfunction arterial health , is a functional test for early detection of underlying disease progression. Problem solving is a skill that everyone should master. Biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.

Pathology is a significant component of the causal study of disease and a major field in modern medicine and diagnosis. Autopsy is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death and to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present.

It is usually performed by a specialized medical doctor called a pathologist. Also known as a post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum. Diagnostic Tests - Advanced Sensors Biomarker is a measurable indicator of the severity or presence of some disease state. More generally a biomarker is anything that can be used as an indicator of a particular disease state or some other physiological state of an organism.

Lab on a Chip is a device that integrates one or several laboratory functions on a single integrated circuit commonly called a "chip" of only millimeters to a few square centimeters to achieve automation and high-throughput screening. LOCs can handle extremely small fluid volumes down to less than pico liters. LOCs may use microfluidics, the physics, manipulation and study of minute amounts of fluids. Jack Andraka video and text Body Parts on a Chip video and text Microfluidics deals with the behaviour, precise control and manipulation of fluids that are geometrically constrained to a small, typically sub-millimeter, scale.

Lego Organ on a Chip is a multi-channel 3-D microfluidic cell culture chip that simulates the activities, mechanics and physiological response of entire organs and organ systems, a type of artificial organ. The versatile use of exhaled volatile organic compounds in human health and disease. Exhaled breath contains thousands of volatile organic compounds VOCs of which the composition varies depending on health status. Various metabolic processes within the body produce volatile products that are released into the blood and will be passed on to the airway once the blood reaches the lungs.

Consequently, measuring the total amount of VOCs in exhaled air, a kind of metabolomics also referred to as breathomics. Scientists have found a potentially useful link between the presence of exhaled acinetobacter baumannii derived volatile organic compounds VOCs and patients diagnosed with bacterial pneumonia.

Lab Testing Facilities - Heart Diagnostics Flexible Electronics Capturing Brain Signals with Soft Electronics using long-term stable neural recording based on a novel elastic material composite, which is biocompatible and retains high electrical conductivity even when stretched to double its original length.

A team of engineers has developed stretchable fuel cells that extract energy from sweat and are capable of powering electronics, such as LEDs and Bluetooth radios. The biofuel cells generate 10 times more power per surface area than any existing wearable biofuel cells. The devices could be used to power a range of wearable devices. A new medical-diagnostic device made out of paper detects biomarkers and identifies diseases by performing electrochemical analyses -- powered only by the user's touch -- and reads out the color-coded test results, making it easy for non-experts to understand.

The top layer of the SPED is fabricated using untreated cellulose paper with patterned hydrophobic "domains" that define channels that wick up blood samples for testing. These "microfluidic channels" allow for accurate assays that change color to indicate specific testing results. A machine-vision diagnostic application also was created to automatically identify and quantify each of these "colorimetric" tests from a digital image of the SPED, perhaps taken with a cellphone, to provide fast diagnostic results to the user and to facilitate remote-expert consultation.

The bottom layer of the SPED is a " triboelectric generator ," or TEG, which generates the electric current necessary to run the diagnostic test simply by rubbing or pressing it. The researchers also designed an inexpensive handheld device called a potentiostat, which is easily plugged into the SPED to automate the diagnostic tests so that they can be performed by untrained users.

The SPEDs were used to detect biomarkers such as glucose, uric acid and L-lactate, ketones, and white blood cells, which indicate factors related to liver and kidney function, malnutrition and anemia. Future versions of the technology will contain several additional layers for more complex assays to detect diseases such as dengue fever, yellow fever, malaria, HIV and hepatitis. Laboratory is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research , experiments , and measurement may be performed.

Medical Laboratory is a laboratory where tests are usually done on clinical specimens in order to obtain information about the health of a patient as pertaining to the diagnosis , treatment, and prevention of disease. Clinical laboratories are thus focused on applied science mainly on a production-like basis, as opposed to research laboratories that focus on basic science on an academic basis.

A synthetic, injectable hydrogel developed to deliver drugs and encourage tissue growth turns out to have therapeutic properties all its own. Food Sensors - Sensors ai Surgery Surgeon is a doctor who performs operations, which is a medical procedure involving an incision with instruments; performed to repair damage or arrest disease in a living body. Incision is cutting of or into body tissues or organs. Surgeons may be physicians, podiatrists, dentists, or veterinarians. Surgery Encyclopedia Universal Anesthesia Machine Onebreath low-cost Ventilator Surgery Simulator Color Coded Surgery video Ultrasound Surgery video Web Robotic Surgery Invasive Surgical Procedure refers to surgical techniques that limit the size of incisions needed and so lessens wound healing time, associated pain and risk of infection.

An endovascular aneurysm repair as an example of minimally invasive surgery is much less invasive in that it involves much smaller incisions, than the corresponding open surgery procedure of open aortic surgery.

A new type of implant scaffold to provide localised drug treatment and prevent infection. Battling bacterial infection with hexamethylene diisocyanate cross-linked and Cefaclor-loaded collagen scaffolds. Organ Transplants Organ Transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.

The donor and recipient may be at the same location, or organs may be transported from a donor site to another location. Transplants that are recently performed between two subjects of the same species are called allografts.

Allografts can either be from a living or cadaveric source. T-Cells Organ Donation is when a person allows to be removed, legally, either by consent while the donor is alive or after death with the assent of the next of kin. Donation may be for research, or, more commonly healthy transplantable organs and tissues may be donated to be transplanted into another person.

Some organs and tissues can be donated by living donors , such as a kidney or part of the liver, but most donations occur after the donor has died. As of August 1, , there are , people waiting for life-saving organ transplants in the US. Of these, 96, await kidney transplants. While views of organ donation are positive there is a large gap between the numbers of registered donors compared to those awaiting organ donations on a global level.