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Finally, it also facilitates speech. Lesson by Enda Butler, animation by Compote Collective. They're responsible for pressure equalization of the eardrum to prevent strain on the eardrum with environmental changes and they drain the middle ear of mucus secretions and debris to minimize infection risk. All of the areas we'll be discussing today are highlighted in green in this image and when we talk about a specific part, we'll highlight that specific area. The internal intercostal muscles are a set of muscles found between the ribs situated deep to the external intercostal muscles. At the beginning of this tutorial, we talked about the nasal cavity and its functions. The tongue's functions in respiration are to humidify and heat or cool inhaled air to body temperature and to detect the temperature of anything in the mouth for example food to allow you to react and avoid damage to the throat.
This is Lesson 4 in our Respiratory System series. This is part of our Anatomy and Physiology lecture series. We breathe constantly, but have you ever thought about how breathing works?
Discover the ins and outs of one of our most basic living functions-- from the science of respiration to how to control your breaths. Found by Rockefellerteacher in Respiratory System. The previous video we looked at the upper respiratory tract. This starts to look at the lower respiratory tract, specifically the larynx.
Our second video in our Respiratory System series for Anatomy and Physiology covers the following: A good overview or preview. A handout with terms would be of benefit as the video moves rapidly. Found by freealan in Respiratory System.
Welcome to the first video in our Respiratory System series for Anatomy and Physiology. This video covers the following: Your lungs pull in oxygen through your nose, mouth, and throat. Then, in the lungs, the oxygen is transfered to the blood vessels and the lungs draw waste, carbon dioxide, out of the veins. You can then exhale all of the waste! Learn more about yo Detailed images are set to music and information is printed under each photo.
A short, self-checking quiz is also provided with this link. Found by begamatt in Respiratory System. This is a concise and easy-to-understand three-minute video that explains in steps how oxygen is transported. Information is conveyed through animation and commentary. This twenty minute video shows how the lungs and pulmonary system works using a smart board and narrator.
View all practice tests in this course. Gross Anatomy of the Airway and Lungs: Function of Pleural Cavities and Pleural Membranes Each lung is contained within a pleural cavity, the space between the outside of the lung and inside of the chest wall. The Respiratory Surface and Gas Exchange Efficiency The respiratory membrane includes millions of alveoli with a surface area as large as a tennis court.
Pulmonary Surfactant Function and Ventilation Our lungs are lined with a thin layer of water. Oxygen and Hemoglobin Did you know that almost all of the oxygen transported in our blood is bound to hemoglobin? Cooperative Binding of Oxygen with Hemoglobin Our cells need oxygen. Carbon Dioxide Transport in the Blood While carbon dioxide is a metabolic waste product, it plays some important physiological roles as well.
How Ventilation is Regulated Did you know that our nervous system controls our breathing? What Are Pulmonary Function Tests? Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam. Other Practice Exams in this course. Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam. Earning College Credit Did you know… We have over college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1, colleges and universities.
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Password confirm may only be 56 characters long. Password confirm does not match password. Unlimited access to all video lessons Lesson Transcripts Tech support. See all other plans. Streaming videos that cover every part of the exam, to help you get your best grade or score Download videos with ease Full transcripts of each lesson Unlimited practice tests —so you're completely confident on test day Mobile app —study anywhere 1-on-1 support from instructors.
See all other plans See the Teacher's Edition. Don't worry, we'll email you right away with all the details You are free to cancel online, anytime, with just a few simple clicks And if you have any questions, you can reach out anytime. First Name Name is required. In periods of increased metabolic demand, in other words, when more oxygen or waste removal is required, accessory muscles are activated to increase the depth and rate of breathing.
We'll use diagram showing just the skeleton and muscles to display where they are. Let's run through some of the main ones starting with those that assist inspiration. The sternocleidomastoid muscle and the scalene muscles attach to structures above the ribs. When they contract, they pull the ribs up and out assisting the external intercostal muscles.
Here we can see the sternocleidomastoid which originates from the sternum and clavicle and then inserts on the mastoid process of the skull. Next, we can see the posterior scalene muscle which originates from the cervical vertebrae and inserts on the second rib. Then we have the middle scalene muscle which also originates from the cervical vertebrae but inserts on the first rib. Finally we have the anterior scalene muscle which also originates from the cervical vertebrae and inserts on the first rib.
Muscle of the anterior chest wall such as the pectoralis major muscles attach between the ribs and the shoulder joint. When the shoulder joints are fixed in position, the muscles pull the ribcage up and out towards each shoulder enlarging the intrathoracic cavity.
It's possible to fix the shoulder joint in place using the back muscles or by pushing your arms against something. Muscles of the posterior chest wall such as latissimus dorsi which we can see here and the trapezius muscle which we can see here facilitate greater inspiration by fixing the shoulders in position to allow the anterior chest wall muscles to assist this just mentioned shows the spine stability to pull against raising the ribs in a similar fashion to the external intercostal muscles.
Muscles around the spine such as the iliocostalis muscle shown here help out by stabilizing the spine and lower ribs. This gives other muscles fixed structures to pull against and by extending the spine the intrathoracic volume is increased. When you're breathing hard you need to force air out of your lungs. The internal intercostal muscles are a set of muscles found between the ribs situated deep to the external intercostal muscles. They pull the ribs down and together to increase the intrathoracic pressure and push air out.
The abdominal wall muscles also help and there are four muscles in this group. These muscles include the rectus abdominis muscle seen here, the internal oblique muscle seen here, the external oblique muscle seen here and, finally, the transversus abdominis muscle seen here. When these muscles contract, they increase the pressure inside the abdominal cavity.
This forces the diaphragm upwards which increases the pressure in the thoracic cavity and helps push air from the lungs. Now that we covered the main structures of the respiratory system, let's go on to discuss the accessory structures. The accessory structures which we can now see highlighted in green generally have two main functions.
One is to help optimize gas exchange and the other is to minimize risks to the airway. There are quite a few structures but we'll work our way through them in a similar way to before following the path of inhaled air. At the beginning of this tutorial, we talked about the nasal cavity and its functions.
To help maximize its ability to carry out these functions, the nasal cavity has some accessory structures within it. These are the nasal conchae and nasal meatus. The nasal conchae are curled shelves of bone protruding from the skull. In the image on the right, we can see the superior, middle and inferior nasal conchae highlighted in green. Between the nasal conchae are the nasal meatus which are these air-filled areas of the nasal cavity we can now see highlighted in our image.
Together, the nasal conchae and meatus function to increase the surface area of the nasal cavity. This optimizes its ability to control the temperature and humidity of inhaled air and provides more opportunity to catch particles and pathogens.
The conchae also cause turbulence of inhaled air which enhances smell detection. Another important structure in the nasal cavity is the cribriform plate which we can see here highlighted in green. It's part of the ethmoid bone of the skull and forms the superior aspect of the nasal cavity.
What makes it unique is that it's pierced by lots of tiny holes through which branches of the olfactory nerve protrude. The olfactory nerve is responsible for the sense of smell so it means to have nerve endings in the nasal cavity thus the cribriform plate facilitates the sense of smell. Smell is important in respiration as it allows the detection of potentially toxic or risky environments. Moving backwards in the head we come to the Eustachian tubes which are air-filled canals that connect the middle ear to the nasopharynx.
This tiny hole here is where the Eustachian tube communicates with the nasopharynx. There's one tube on either side of the head each connecting with an ear. We can see this clearer in the next diagram where this tube — the Eustachian tube — connects the middle ear and the nasopharynx.
The Eustachian tubes have two functions. They're responsible for pressure equalization of the eardrum to prevent strain on the eardrum with environmental changes and they drain the middle ear of mucus secretions and debris to minimize infection risk.
Looking into the mouth, a few accessory structures can be seen. The first one which we're looking at now is the tongue. The tongue is a group of muscles in the mouth which can be controlled unconsciously and consciously.
Because it is a group of muscles, the tongue is highly controllable and has many functions. The tongue's functions in respiration are to humidify and heat or cool inhaled air to body temperature and to detect the temperature of anything in the mouth for example food to allow you to react and avoid damage to the throat.
It's also responsible for swallowing where it guides food away from the trachea, and for taste to detect potentially toxic environments. Finally, it also facilitates speech. Moving up to the top of the mouth, we have the hard and soft palates which form the roof of the mouth.
This can be seen in this anterior view of the open mouth. First, we have the hard palate and posterior to the hard palate, we have the soft palate. They separate the nasal cavity and nasopharynx from the oral cavity and oropharynx.
The hard palate is made up of bones of the skull whereas the soft palate is a group of muscles that are coordinated with the tongue.
Collectively, the palates have three functions — closing the nasal airway during swallowing and vomiting, providing sensation for the gag reflex and in modifying speech. Attached to the edge of the soft palate is this structure here which is called the uvula. This is a small dangling grape-like structure which moves when you say ahhh.
It provides sensation for the gag reflex and aids with speech. Sometimes confused with the uvula are the tonsils.
There are three sets of paired tonsils — two pharyngeal tonsils on the back wall of the nasopharynx — two palatine tonsils one each side of the soft palate, and two lingual tonsils found at the base of the tongue.
The palatine tonsils often called the adenoids when infected are the tonsils removed in a tonsillectomy. We can see the right and left palatine tonsils in this anterior view of the open mouth. As a collective unit, the three sets of tonsils' job is to trap and identify particles and pathogens entering the body.
They form an almost complete ring around the throat called Waldeyer's ring. This allows the tonsils to catch everything going into the body. Going down into the neck, we have the epiglottis. This is a flap of connective tissue attached to the entrance of the larynx.
When swallowing, the epiglottis closes over the larynx to prevent swallowed substances from entering the lower respiratory tract. Below the epiglottis, we can see this structure here which is called the larynx.
The larynx is a collection of cartilage structures and it houses and protects the vocal cords. Adam's apple is a useful surface marker of the front of the larynx. The vocal cords' functions are modulating pitch and voice production and to act as another barrier in preventing aspiration of larger objects. Before we conclude this tutorial, let's go over some clinical notes relating to the respiratory system. Respiratory diseases can be separated into two categories.
Obstructive diseases affect the airways you can see highlighted and examples include asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease also known as COPD.
Restrictive diseases on the other hand cause problems with lung expansion.