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These include being overweight, a family history of heart disease and high cholesterol, smoking, and a sedentary lifestyle. How effective is hypnosis as a method for reducing stress? Polyacrylate on soil erosion. Which vegetables serve as the best conductors of electricity? Individual articles are based upon the opinions of the respective author, who retains copyright as marked.

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Such a system might be useful to help define locations for wind energy farms. Design considerations for "Solar Heated" homes Design considerations for "Solar-Cell" powered homes What are the best designs for propellers for wind generators?

Production of electrical energy from mechanical sources Which substance is best to use in blocking floodwaters? Develop a shower water temperature monitor. Such a device might help conserve energy Study of efficient home insulation. Which is the best? Illustrate a working model of an electrodeless sulfur lamp. Show how such lamps could save energy in home, office and street lighting needs The effect of landscaping and architecture on energy consumption.

What are the annual variations in the ecology of a body of water The study of the impact of pollution on an ecosystem A study of water pollution from feed lot farms Make your own aerogel cubes. Describe some uses for this new material Illustrate how glass foam might be used to make strong building materials with high insulation properties Tracing chemical e. DDT concentrations in successive food chain levels Ozone destruction experiments A study of air purification methods Come up with some non-chemical methods of purifying water.

Build a lawn moisture sensor. Tells you when it is time to water the lawn. Saveswater by not allowing sprinkler to turn on of the lawn is moist enough Demonstrate how sea wave action could be used to produce fresh water from sea water using reverse osmoses Build an energy monitor that displays gas and electricity usage. Unit connected to the power and gas meters. Maybe place the display next to the thermostat.

Displays real time usage as well as weekly and monthly totals Efficient methods of breaking down crude oil in seawater Experimenting with microbial degradation of petroleum Experimenting with biodegradability Can Centrifugal Filtration Be Used to Remove Particles from Water Efficiently and Economically Find and ink that would decompose for recycling paper Rain- can you measure the speed and force of raindrops? Use of solar energy- design and construct solar cookers, solar panels, etc.

An analysis of exhaust emissions of cars as related to the size of cars and tune-up conditions How Carbon Dioxide Affects the Temperature of Air An analysis of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and hydrocarbons in our ambient air. How much air space maximizes insulation in various materials? Design, construction, and testing of a mechanical method of separating solid waste for recycling.

The effect of air pollution on algae, protozoa, fish, insects or mosses and lichens What type of materials are strongest when they interact with acid rain? Which material filters water the best?

The effect of air pollution on algae, protozoa, fish, insects or mosses and lichens Does the amount of particle pollution vary with distance from a road, with location, with height. Determine types of particles found in pollution fallout Exploring methods of controlling erosion Is air in your house the same temperature at floor level and near the ceiling?

How could you spread heat more evenly through the house? Can magnetism be used to remove minerals from "hard" water? Research and demonstrate methods of pasteurizing or purifying water using only sunlight as the source of heat. Is there a relationship between well water contamination and animal pens? How effective is lettuce as a bioassay medium for determining the toxicity of water contaminants? What effect does water turbidity have on dissolved oxygen? What are the effects of biodegradable wastes on dissolved oxygen?

From which direction does our area receive the most particulate air pollution? Does carbon dioxide contribute to warming in a closed environment?

What aerosols are in the air and does air quality affect asthma rates? Research and experiment with different plants to see if any of them can be used as an indicator of air pollution.

What are the effects on plant life when detergents are added to the soil? Examine and compare the biodegradability of different soap powders. Compare the effects of Polyacrylamide vs. Polyacrylate on soil erosion. Which types of paper decompose the most rapidly when buried? What effect would an oil spill have on plant life?

Demonstrate the greenhouse effect by measuring the temperature within a light trap box covered with glass or plastic.

Does the pH of rainwater vary from place to place in our community? How does air pollution affect the growth of algae? What are the effects of carbon dioxide on land plant life? What about water plant life? Are macroinvertebrates indicators of stream health? Can biomass be used to generate electricity by creating methane gas?

Can soil besides a roadway be a health hazard? What are the best grasses to use to reduce the amount of soil in runoff? How to different fabrics compare as barriers against UV radiation? Is is possible to use recycled newspaper to fertilize plants? Which enzyme works best to reduce grease in a grease trap? The mathematics of snowflakes Infinity comes in different "sizes". What does this mean? How can it be explained? Compare the mean, median and range of heights for males and females in your class.

How will this compare to a class one year older? Demonstrate the bell shaped curved for random distribution Does a sphere hold a volume greater than the apparent volume of a cylinder? Research, explain and demonstrate the use of fractals. Determine how the size of a statistical sample affects its accuracy. What equalities of lengths and angles are sufficient to prove two sets of four points quadrilaterals or quadrangles Build models showing that parallelograms with the same base and height have the same areas.

Is there a 3-dimensional analogue? This can lead to a purely visual proof of the Pythagorean theorem, using a physical model based on dissections. Consider tiling the plane using shapes of the same size. What's possible and what isn't? In particular it can be shown that any 4-sided shape can tile the plane.

What about 5 sides? Make sketches in a geometry program Sketchpad, Cabri, or using Kali Investigate compass and straight-edge constructions - showing what's possible and discussing what's not. Investigate constructions using origami paper folding. Can you construct all figures that are constructed with ruler and compass?

Can you construct more figures? What is the fewest number of colors needed to color any map if the rule is that no two countries with a common border can have the same color. Why is the proof interesting? What if Mars is also divided into areas so that these areas are owned by different countries on earth. They too are colored by the same rule but the areas there must be colored by the color of the country they belong to. How many colors are now needed?

Polyominoes are shapes made by connecting certain numbers of equal-sized squares together. How many different ones can be made from 2 squares?

Investigate the shapes that polynominoes can make. Investigate the creation of secret codes ciphers. Find out where they are used today! Look at their history. Build your own using prime numbers. Find out all you can about the Catalan Numbers, 1, 1, 2, 5, 14, 42, Build models to illustrate asymptotic results such as Stirling's formula or the prime number theorem. There is a well-known device for illustrating the binomial distribution.

Marbles are dropped through the top and encounter a number of pins before dropping into cells where they are distributed according to the binomial distribution. By changing the position of the pins one should be able to get other kinds of distributions bimodal, skewed, approximately rectangular, etc.

Use Monte Carlo methods to find areas or to estimate pi. Rather than using random numbers, throw a bunch of small objects onto the required area and count the numbers of objects inside the area as a fraction of the total in the rectangular frame. Look at the ways different bases are used in our culture and how they have been used in other cultures. Look at how other cultures have written their number systems.

Demonstrate how to add using the Mayan base 20, maybe compare to trying to add with Roman numerals is it even possible? Explore the history and use of the Abacus There are several methods of counting and calculating using your fingers and hands. Some of these methods are still in common usage. Explore the mathematics behind one of them.

Find out all you can about the Fibonacci Numbers - In particular, where do they arise in nature? What is the Golden Mean? Study its appearance in art, architecture, biology, and geometry, and its connection with continued fractions, Fibonacci numbers. What else can you find out? If that's not enough, do squares, pentagonal numbers, hexagonal numbers, etc.

Venture into the third and even the fourth dimensions. Use your computer to draw fractals based on simple equations such as Julia sets and Mandelbrot sets. Find examples of all of them and understand how they differ. Is there an algorithm for getting out of 2-dimensional mazes? Look at the history of mazes some are extraordinary. How would you go about finding someone who is lost in a maze 2 or 3 dimensional and wandering randomly? How many people would you need to find them?

Investigate the Steiner problem - one application of which is concerned with the location of telephone exchanges to minimize costs. Construct a double pendulum and use it to investigate chaos. All forms of gambling are based on probability.

Investigate how much casinos anticipate winning from you when you play black-jack, roulette, etc. Study a variety of lotteries and compare them. Should one ever buy a lottery ticket? Why does three of a kind beat two pairs in poker? Discover why the different types of hands are ranked as they are. Study the cycloid curve: Investigate visual representations of different finite numbers.

Investigate self-avoiding random walks and where they naturally occur. Find as many triangles as you can with integer sides and a simple linear relation between the angles.

What about the special case when the triangle is right-angled? What is a hexaflexagon? Make as may different ones as you can. What is going on? What is fractal dimension? Investigate it by examining examples showing what happens when you double the scale to a lines b areas c solids d the Koch curve Explore Penrose tiles and discover why they are of interest. Do different genres of music each exhibit a unique mathematical pattern? How can the shortest path algorithm be modified to include traffic conditions?

How does the size of a statistical sample affect its accuracy? Do the non-smoking sections in a restaurant protect you from second-hand smoke? Does a person's body temperature vary during the day? What is the affect on the kidneys from drinking different types of liquids? Does drinking alcohol dehydrate the body? How accurately can people judge room temperature? Construct a homemade stethoscope and use it to listen to heartbeats and measure heart rate. Does a person's pulse rate vary during the day?

The objective is to determine whether the mental connation of smells correlates with the heart's response to the scents of aldehydes primarily fruit and flower based and phenols primarily leave, bark, or root based.

What are the effects of passive smoke on ciliary function? Following strenuous exercise, does pulse rate stabilize faster in athletes than in non-athletes? Following strenuous exercise, which fluid is best to drink? Does the type of pushup affect muscle growth? Compare the neural discrimination times between assorted groups of people. What is the effect of ingested orange juice on blood sugar levels?

What affect does exercise have on the oxygen level in the bloodstream? Compare blood pressure readings between assorted groups: How effective is hypnosis as a method for reducing stress? Chitosan is considered potentially useful for numerous applications ranging from biomedical to industrial.

Experiment with ways it would be beneficial in the medical field. Does jet lag affect the performance of professional sports teams? Are there measurable changes in temperature, pulse or respiration following ingestion of caffeine? Does caffeine have an effect on blood pressure? Do creatine supplements enhance athletic performance? Are herbs a viable alternative to modern medicines?

Which beverage stains your teeth the worst? Determine the effect of different liquid substances on the decaying of teeth. Do filtered cigarettes really prevent tar from getting into your lungs when compared to non-filtered cigarettes? Does the use of wood burning stoves contribute to respiratory illnesses? Does smoking have an immediate effect on temperature, pulse, respiration or blood pressure? Does playing video games affect heart rate? Does loud Rock Music have any effect on a person's hearing?

Does music beat have any effect on a person's blood pressure? Do males have a larger visual blind spot than females? Does visual therapy and exercise improve vision? Are there any health hazards associated with video display terminals? For this reason, patients who are starting a long-term inhaled or oral glucocorticoid therapy are encouraged to supplement it with calcium and vitamin D, since bone loss occurs rapidly upon initiating treatment.

A healthy diet for patients with COPD can lead to better breathing and possibly facilitate weaning from mechanical ventilation by providing the calories necessary to meet metabolic needs, restore FFM, and reduce hypercapnia. Carbon dioxide is a waste product of metabolism and is normally expelled via the lungs. However, patients with COPD who have limited and obstructed airflow have a compromised ability to take in oxygen and eliminate carbon dioxide. In healthy individuals, increased carbon dioxide levels are easily eliminated.

The Importance of Proper Nutrition Proper nutrition can help reduce carbon dioxide levels and improve breathing. Specifically, it is important to focus on the percentages of total carbohydrate, fat, and protein that patients consume to see how their diet composition impacts their respiratory quotient RQ , which is defined as the ratio of carbon dioxide produced to oxygen consumed. To put it simply, following metabolism, carbohydrate, fat, and protein are all converted to carbon dioxide and water in the presence of oxygen.

However, the ratio of carbon dioxide produced to oxygen consumed differs per macronutrient; the RQ for carbohydrate is 1, fat is 0. From a nutritional standpoint, this means that eating carbohydrates will yield the most carbon dioxide, while eating fats will yield the least carbon dioxide.

That said, prescribing a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet would reduce patient RQ levels and carbon dioxide production. In fact, patients who have difficulty increasing ventilation following a carbohydrate load or patients with severe dyspnea or hypercapnia may benefit from a high-fat diet. However, there is not a general consensus in the literature to universally recommend a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet, as it may not be necessary for stable patients and not all patients may be able to tolerate the potential side effects eg, gastrointestinal and abdominal discomfort, belching, diarrhea.

In addition, some patients may have a coexisting heart condition, which could make a high-fat diet contraindicated. Protein needs should be assessed on an individual basis. Intake should be high enough to stimulate protein synthesis, prevent muscle atrophy, and maintain lung strength but should not contribute excess calories to the diet. The general rule of thumb is about 1. As for fluids, patients who are not on a fluid-restricted diet should be encouraged to drink liquids 2 to 3 liters per day to keep mucous thin and help clear the airways.

There is still debate as to the effectiveness of nutrition therapy in improving anthropometric measurements, lung function, and exercise capacity in patients with COPD. Although exercise is probably the last thing most patients with breathing problems want to think about, engaging in regular exercise has been shown to improve overall strength and endurance, reduce symptoms of dyspnea and fatigue, improve cardiovascular function, and contribute to stronger respiratory muscles and improved breathing.

Modify food consistency if mastication seems to increase fatigue while eating. Consuming too much can cause the body to retain water and can make breathing more difficult. In a worst-case scenario, the lagoons could erode from the Incidence is on the rise in this country, where it affects about ,, and 12 million elsewhere.

You can get sick directly from the bug bite, or indirectly. No need to be outdoors to be bitten, as they make themselves at home. Diabetes affects over 30 million people in this country alone, some of whom regulate their condition with oral medication.

A federal agency warns one medication may trigger a potentially fatal infection. I'll share methods to control the condition Earwax protects your ear canal and your hearing. However, an unrecognized buildup in the elderly may trigger serious problems, including increased cognitive decline. I'll share what not to do and how to clean your ears safely. Tai chi supporters say it can, and as a senior health writer for The New York Times found, this This one is amazingly versatile.

Is it part of your antitumor strategy? Chicken contaminated with E. New research was even able to confirm that people are A new record has been set for three common STDs, with millions of cases being reported. Gonorrhea, syphilis and chlamydia are all on the rise and becoming increasingly difficult to treat due to growing antibiotic resistance.

Or, perhaps you should call it triple-dipping, as If you've heard the media circus over recent months, you may be questioning what the real truth is. Let's take a peek behind the curtain and see what's really going on, so you can see beyond the propaganda - and not be led astray. Due to the overprescribing of antibiotics and concerns about antibiotic resistance, health officials in England are proposing new guidelines promoting the use of honey as a first line of treatment for coughs.

Despite their lack of effectiveness for A probiotic blend with human origin is a good way to describe what in layman's terms may be better explained by simply calling it probiotic baby poop capsules.

Far from being an attention grabber although it is that , this novel approach to gut Take this week's quiz to see how well you remember what you read on Mercola. Shown to worsen asthma, heart problems, anxiety, MS, infertility and tinnitus, your blood sugar may even increase when unprotected from it.

Many have seen improvement by installing one of these to remove this dirty substance from their environment. This ketogenic braised pork shanks recipe is a hearty and succulent dish that everyone will surely love.

Try it now and warm your belly with every bite! Plantar fasciitis, which affects many people globally, causes inflammation to a major ligament found in your foot. This guide will help you learn how to deal with plantar fasciitis, and effective preventive techniques to lower your risk for this con Yerba mate is a popular tea in countries like Argentina and Brazil, with some people actually favoring it over coffee for an energy boost.

But aside from being a great pick-me-up, it is also loaded with active compounds that may help protect your bo

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