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Fortunately, this radio was all original right down to the power cord featuring the lower case "h" on the plug, which signified the Hirschmann brand — most commonly known as the German supplier of traditional and automatic motorized antennas on Mercedes-Benz automobiles. For this reason, I understand that in Germany perhaps other European countries as well it was illegal to sell FM radios that could pick up the full FM broadcast spectrum. But ALA is also needed for other fat conversions, so I probably try out 2 spoons of fishoil and add another of flax to get them all. I have reason to believe that the slide for this trombone is from that original Fuchs instrument. The teak wood has not been oiled for over 10 years and left outside for part of that time. This password is optional.

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An underrated pro level trombone, the Benge F is a large bore. It isn't the most fancy or glorious but it does play well and is a very nice instrument for a student or young professional looking for a quality horn that won't break the bank.

This one is in very nice shape and silver-plated. Long the industry standard for the west coast and many professional orchestras around the world. This is a newer Eastlake Conn 8D, good lightly used condition with some minor cosmetic blems and normal wear from use.

A good playing instrument that will serve as a workhorse for many years to come. The 8D was based on the famous Kruspe Horner model. It is a large bore french horn with a large bell flare.

Extremely rare German romantic trombone made in the late s by one of the most famous and influential makers of trombones, J. Penzel was the apprentice of Sattler, who is credited with creating the large bore trombone, and this instrument is made in the same style as those original models.

It is gold brass, extremely thin material, with a wide nickel garland that is engraved and decorated with the traditional shell stamps. Interestingly, this particular trombone has a tuning slide incorporated in the slide. I showed it to Robb Stewart who repaired a small crack in one of the slide legs and he and I both believe this is an original feature on this instrument, making it particularly unusual and special.

It's a big bore and takes a mouthpiece somewhere between a "euro" shank and a modern large shank. Slide works well for raw inners which are both original and being as old as it is. A piece of history to use in period work or just to own an important instrument in the evolution of the trombone. This is a terrific playing Bach 42 and has the coveted "Stainless Steel" casing from O. Thayer that was very popular in the s. Recently restored here at our shop, it has been gently relacquered and some worn parts replaced and repaired.

Comes with a press fit Brasslab leadpipe. Honestly, if I didn't have so many trombones, I'd keep this one.

I love the sound of it, orchestral but clear and brilliant. Not going to last long. Own a legend, this is one of Dick Nash's Bach 36 trombones, with a gold brass bell and lightweight brass slide. Dick played this trombone on countless film scores, it's got lots of good notes in it. A very nice playing Shires bass trombone with dependent trubore valves, one of 9 sets I believe. This is a unique playing trombone, it reminds me a lot of a Holton, that big warm enveloping sound that gets a touch bright when you lay into it.

Has an unsoldered red brass bell, B62 slide one leadpipe. My guess is this Ophicleide is from the late s judging by the number of keys and lever system. It was repadded and corked by Robb Stewart and has quite a nice sound. Chinese Ophi's are ubiquitous now, here's a chance to have an authentic antique for a reasonable price.

A fantastic deal for an inline professional level bass trombone. I just love the sound of a Benge trombone, it is gooey dark with a brilliant edge, begging to be played with core and depth. These are wonderful under appreciated trombones. This instrument has been in storage at a music shop for the past 15 years. Rumor has it that Larry Minick was involved with the design of this model, could be true.

The valves look a lot like a Minick wrap. The H is a great bargain for an inline valve bass trombone. This one has a 10" unlacquered red brass bell, some minor cosmetic and lacquer blems. Makes a great big sound and is fun to play. Totally unique trombone that was built from parts for a Bach aficionado to be an ultimate vintage Bach jazzer. Robb Stewart fabricated the trombone. Bell flare is from Byron Peebles collection, a Mt Vernon 12 yellow brass bell.

The neckpipe is custom built by Robb, along with the hexagonal cross braces, The tuning slide and hand slide are from a Bach New York model A custom knurled hand brace was fabricated by Robb looks kinda steampunk and feels good in the hand. Comes with a Mt Vernon coffin case. I can't recall the last time I saw one of these in person, if ever. One thing I love about this trombone is the makers stamp, it is an early Mt Vernon so the signature still looks like the New York factory stamp, I love that.

It has a dual bore. Also unusual is that this one has gold brass outer slide tubes. In very good vintage condition. A unique opportunity to purchase something special from arguably the most desirable Bach period of production. This Bach jazzer has some pedigree to it, owned by the late Chauncey Welsch.

As such, as with all of Chauncey's trombones, the tuning slide has been slightly shortened to allow for slide vibrato in 1st position, old skool! The 16GM bell section has a more open neckpipe.

This one also has a Bach 12 lightweight nickel silver In good shape with usual wear and press fit leadpipe. A corporation Bach 42B, no frills, just a workhorse. In good used condition, the finish does have some scratches and lacquer is more or less gone.

Makes a nice classic Bach sound. This is a lightly used, gorgeous Miraphone BBb tuba. The has long been the staple of BBb tubas since it was introduced and is the most widely played model BBb in the world. This particular instrument was picked out at the factory in Germany and imported into the USA. It is in very excellent shape with no major dings and only a few cosmetic scratches and pings.

Lacquer is in very good condition. It includes a Winter hard case. Super rare and super gorgeous, this is a Bach New York model 36B. Traditional wrap, larger Marston rotary valve with updated linkage,. Robb Stewart did a beautiful job refurbishing this trombone as a nice touch he made a long water key by request of the owner without buffing destroying the original lacquer on the bell there are a few lacquer blems on the bell.

The leadpipe is removable, and a custom two piece leadpipe is installed. Comes with a period Bach case. This horn is absolutely a gorgeous time capsule. It is all original with matching serial numbers. It is in fantastic condition for nearing years old. The slide has the original tubes in great shape and the slide action is extremely respectable for a trombone of this vintage.

The hand engraving is jaw dropping gorgeous. Lion head engraving on the slide is also clear and not worn. A well used and well loved Shires trombone, early production! The bell is hand engraved and would become the 1Y bell flare. The horn has a Thayer valve with original nickel shires thumb paddle, the slide is a dual bore. Owned by one of the top jazz trombonists here in LA, this is an extremely nice playing Bach 12 Mt Vernon.

Its not in perfect shape cosmetically but it is nicely broken in with lots of strong slots and fast response. This one reminds me of a baseball glove that your friend has that's perfectly seasoned.

Yep, that is this trombone. A nifty Selmer Paris Bolero trombone. Not only is it good for Bolero, it is also good for all sort of commercial playing. It is a versatile size, similar to the King 3B,. A nice touch, the bell has a small brass garland on the rim. These are high quality instruments and a bargain price.

In good used condition with typical wear and tear. A gorgeous vintage Mirafone bass trumpet in Bb with 4 rotary valves. Appropriate for Janacek, Wagner, Stravinsky or any other prominent bass trumpet literature.

The sound is beautiful, singing and colorful. Nice intonation and very easy to play. In very good condition and especially rare to find these with 4v. Includes a very nice lightweight nylon gig bag. This was the Ralph Sauer setup for many years before Ralph switched to his Shires with similar specs. The 88HTO has an open wrap F attachment and thin red brass bell flare. The SL slide is a dual bore. It is in very good, lightly used shape and is an excellent player.

Perfect for the trombonist looking for a large orchestral sound but something that speaks a bit faster and is a bit more nimble than a full. This one is a bell tuning model and measures to a.

The engraving is all hand done and features Earl's bulldog on the bell. Overall the trombone has seen better days and is in need of some love and repairs to be completely playable again at a professional level.

As such, it is priced low with he hopes that someone will invest in bringing this rare instrument back to life. This Shires bass trombone is a few years old and remains in very good condition. A really great playing instrument that is versatile and comfortable.

A uniquely unusual renaissance instrument, the tenor cornett aka Lizard, Lysarden, Lysard. This one is unstamped but extremely well made and high quality wood, wrapped in traditional black leather. It is in D with a key for C. Includes a mouthpiece made of horn. Sure to impress your friends and audiences alike. Here is a nice workhorse Bach LT16M trombone. It has an open neckpiece, lightweight nickel slide and a one piece yellow brass bell.

The model made famous by Bill Watrous. This one is in excellent shape and ready to play. Here's a well used Shires Bass Trombone. A good solid playing instrument, priced to sell. There are some scratches, lacquer wear and signs of use but don't let that deter you, its just cosmetic.

Here is something really unique and amazing! This is a custom made Thein bass trombone and has great features and specs. The F attachment is a Hagmann valve, a custom removable 2nd valve was fabricated to fit and works extremely well.

The main tuning slide is from a shires and has been custom fit to this instrument to give it a more "American" blow and response. The instrument also includes a single valve F tuning slide. In great condition, lacquer on the bell is frosted from being in a cold climate. Comes with a Thein flat screw bell case.

Probably the best playing pocket tuba in the world. Here is a BBb pocket tuba from Manfred Schmelzer. This is by far the best design for a small "tornister tuba" I've seen so far and that is because of its full length leadpipe and impressive large bore bends. This is the ultimate pit tuba. If you are a doubler and need a great playing BBb that you can take to work for your show work, this is the one. Or if you're looking for a really good playing tuba that you can take on the road with minimal space, this is it.

It was a demo model from the recent ITF International Trombone Festival in Redlands, and is new but did have a small mishap with the airlines during transit to the show and there is a small ding in the bell flare. As such, get it at a good discount. Silver plated with gold plated trim. Get a great deal on this brand new Yamaha Xeno bass trombone.

This one was a demo model and is in perfect condition, with some minor scratches on the outside of the case only. Comes with original mouthpiece. Beautiful like new Kanstul bass trombone. Modeled after the vintage Conn 62H trombones, this Kanstul features "tuning in the slide", fully conical back bow, thin red brass bell, wide slide and free blowing CR valves.

Very nice instrument indeed. One gold brass leadpipe included. One of the most desirable medium bore trombones in the world. Up for sale, an Earl Williams model 8 trombone in excellent condition. This instrument was made in the late s by Earl's son, Bob Williams at the Burbank shop. It has an 8. It blows like a jazzer but sounds like a big horn. If you're looking for a commercial trombone that has a big sound, this is the one. This one is really a beautiful instrument, has a silver plated slide, lacquered bell.

Slide action is great. The bell flare is very thin and lightweight. Lots of fast notes still left in it. Bob is extremely picky about his trombones and he's owned this one for many years. There is a smallpre-emptive patch on the bell rim, as the metal is thin there and Bob didn't want the rim to split. A great playing vintage Bach 42B "Corporation" from the early s. Features the larger Marston made rotary valve same valve on the Mt Vernons with a closed wrap. Silver finish in decent shape, some silver is worn through showing brass on the neckpipe which you can see in the photos easily covered up with a leather neck guard.

This 42 has one of the sweetest and clearest tones of 42s that have come through the shop. Really a beautiful blowing and sounding instrument. We had a beautiful vintage Elkhart Conn 88H come into the shop and thought it would be a nice candidate for a full conversion. We decided to leave the closed wrap intact to preserve the vintage feel but install our new modern rotary valve. The closed wrap also has our custom ferrules installed.

The bell has had Don's voodoo treatment, new slide crook and our custom Brassark BA2 leadpipe, which is a nice match to the instrument. Threaded leadpipe receiver has been installed and fits Shires threads. We decided to leave the slide the original "narrow" width of an 88H.

The instrument was then lightly buffed and relacquered. A top tier Conn 88H with our well balanced rotary valve that gives vast improvement on the F side of the instrument. This one projects like crazy, big warm sound with clarity and color.

Here is a brand new demo Schilke model ST30 trombone. Think like a Conn 6H that's been pimped out. Quality and craftsmanship is very nice and it feels good in the hand. Includes a Schilke hard case. Here is a very cool setup, an Edwards T finished in brushed lacquer with two bell flares, one yellow brass and one red brass. Includes a newish protec case as well. The yellow bell is a CF and the red bell is a CF. The condition is excellent on this trombone and it is a great playing jazzer.

Rare Burbank Earl Williams model 6 trombone,. This one was made by Bob Williams, Earl's son. The outer tubes and leadpipe are from a Conn H there is a small patch on the bottom tube. The bell is unstamped but is obviously original to the horn and authentic Williams. As such, price reflects so this is a bargain for a monster playing Williams.

In near factory condition. Get a bargain on this horn. A very nice "L series" Conn 8D professional french horn, raw nickel silver. In very good condition. There is a small patch in the flare shown in photo. The valves have been plated and are sealing well. Includes a leather Marcus Bonna case.

A very rare gem of a bass trombone, this instrument was purchased new in and immediately modified by Larry Minick into the configuration you see here. He built the inline valve section as well as installing an unstamped 62H bell flare that Minick was certain was an improvement over the original bell flare, it was installed and remains on this instrument. The original leadpipe and Minick Leadpipes are included.

The valve configuration is inline: It has been used for many years and shows that is has but overall is in very good condition with a lot of life left. This thing is a gas to play, its everything you expect it to be and more. These rarely show up for sale and I can speculate that the inline Minick bass trombones are fewer than you can count on your hand.

Stunning vintage Bach Mt Vernon 50B with inline hangman valves. We built this instrument here at The Brass Ark for one of our clients. The valve section is an inline progressive bore with rose brass tubing. One of the nicest bass trombones we've ever had at the shop. Included with the instrument is the original MV case no longer fits this wrap and the original single valve parts. Extremely rare jazz trombone made by the legendary trombone builder, Earl Williams.

This instrument is one of the earliest stamped model 4 trombones I've seen. It was made at the Los Angeles shop and still has the prominent "williams" trademarks: It was fully restored in by Robb Stewart. Robb fabricated new cork barrels to match the original as well as rotated the inner tubes to extend the life of them.

He also did a nice patch on the original slide crook. It was buffed and relacquered by Robb. This is a stunning trombone and one of the very best jazzers I've ever played. Beautiful lightly used Edwards TE. This one has some unique specs! Comes with three leadpipes and a sterling silver T3 leadpipe. A very nice Edwards fiberglass lightweight case is included. Here's a nice miraphone model BBb tuba with 4 rotary valves. It has had some repairs and shows cosmetic blems in the lacquer as well as some scratching in the finish.

Nice quality tuba that's functioning as it should. The valve linkages have been upgraded to minibal style. A winter style hardcase with wheels is included.

This is a great deal on a top level professional CC tuba. Overall the instrument is in nice used condition. It does have worn spots through the silver and there are some small dings and dents. It is a very solid player with excellent intonation. The low register has a nice powerful sound that blends nicely in ensemble. Nearly new condition professional double French horn made by Mark Atkinson in Burbank.

It is all nickel silver and has a Kruspe valve wrap. It is a Geyer style wrap with a medium throat bell and built from rose brass. This instrument came directly from Conn and has not been previously owned. It has a cut bell and comes with the original Conn case. Alexander, a top tier maker. This instrument is gorgeous and has a beautiful descant tone, ultra clear and bright with lots of colors. In overall very good used condition with tight valves. Comes with a cut bell case. A very nice Conn 4H in the rare satin silver finish.

Previously owned by Alex Iles of the LA studio scene. Extremely good player and in very good condition. Here's an Elkhart Conn 6H. It was owned by Alex Iles. There are some dents and some serious slide wear to the inner tubes. A nice player though it needs some love. Older Yamaha YEP 4 valve euphonium. Previously owned by Alex Iles of the LA studios.

This instrument has had a Minick style tuning trigger added on the main slide to help with tuning on the fly. Overall in very good used condition. Professional Jupiter Jazzer trombone, previously owned by Alex Iles.

This model has a. These Jupiter trombones are becoming very popular. This one has a gold brass bell flare and plays well. Hip Jazz trombone developed back in the s with John Fedchock. This particular instrument was owned previously by Alex Iles. It is in nice used condition and ready to play.

Somewhat rare, this is a Bach model 36GO, gold brass bell flare and open wrap valve. In very nice condition with case. A great playing instrument that is a versatile size. Good for symphonic literature as well as commercial applications.

Extremely rare bass trombone made by the famous maker, Larry Minick. This one appears to be a purpose built instrument, in that it wasn't another instrument before like a modified 62H. It has a one piece Minick bell flare, the valves are dependent and also stamped. The J bend tuning slide is prominent in the design and the slide also appears to be custom made.

The valves are tuned as normal in F and D. The leadpipe is press fit, but has corroded and should be replaced. This is a killer instrument and I've only seen a handful ever. A unique opportunity to have one of the most coveted bass trombones in the world. Made in the mid s in England not a Music Group made Besson , this euphonium has the sweetest sound. I had Brad Close make and install a custom standard large shank mouthpiece receiver so it takes a normal mouthpiece. Bob Reeves did a full valve alignment.

It is very clean, a few small dings and some lacquer scratches. Comes with a nice form fitting hard case. Rare eB alto trombone made by J. Model 3, which is the large bore. I don't know why it works so well, but despite the size of this alto, it doesn't sound like a tenor trombone. Its a fabulous sounding and looking instrument, very high quality craftsmanship. Nickel silver bell garland and nickel slide.

This is a new demo model that was assembled from parts that were shown at a trade show. It looks nearly new with a few small blems in the lacquer. Really a tremendous playing shires. This is an unusual but very special trombone. The model 45 is a special order dual bore small bass trombone.

It has a 9" gold brass bell, open wrap F attachment and narrow width dual bore. This particular instrument was hand assembled from parts at the Bach factory with assistance from Joe Alessi.

It has had two owners and is in good condition. I've not seen another one like this before. Custom made Edwards bass trombone with a s Corporation Bach 50 bell flare. This bass is great, lots of presence and core with a penetrating focused sound.

Tons of clarity with a big open blow and immediate response. Always something special about the Conn 78H trombones. They have wonderful sounds and offer a great amount of versatility.

The 78H has a. This one is in fantastic shape and has the desirable gold brass slide tubes. Very clean Bach 36G with convertible valve section you can take the F valve off and make this into a straight trombone, a nifty thing indeed.

Additionally, the valve section has been customized to an open wrap design by Dick Akright in Oakland. Another bonus, a seamed copper Hoelle tuning slide is also included along with the original tuning slide crook. Alright folks, here's a really unique bass trombone. Pull up a chair, cause here's a story for you. Legend has it that Jeff Reynolds once flattened a Conn Fuchs bass trombone while out jeeping and Larry Minick returned the instrument to playable condition.

I have reason to believe that the slide for this trombone is from that original Fuchs instrument. Don Sawday found the bell in the attic of a music shop here in LA many years ago still wrapped in the plastic. Don acquired the slide from Jeff. I had Don mate these two together, which is the instrument presented here. The slide has new inner tubes and a proper threaded connector now as well as threaded leadpipe receiver.

This is a unique horn folks. This horn is a workhorse and has been well used. It is a great player, has a gold brass bell, thayer valve and standard weight slide. Cosmetically it has been well used but is a very solid playing Bach. Small patch on one of the outer tubes. Talk about being a trumpet hero, this trumpet is all about that. This horn is in great shape with no signs of wear. In very good condition and particularly good looking! The F valve has had a custom ball and socket linkage upgrade done with improves it a lot.

Here's a good deal for a serious trombonist on a budget. This is a Bach 42BO, fairly recent and overall in good shape with the exception of the bell flare, which was damaged and repaired. Whoever did the repair did a poor job and has scarred the flare and thinned the rim bead. As such, this trombone is offered at a bargain price as is. A beautiful trombone we recently refinished here at the shop. From the mid s and has all the nice features of this great era of vintage Conn trombones.

The bell has the deco engraving, tuning slide has the nickel guard and the slide has both bronze outer tubes and thick slide braces. There is some minor wear on the inner tubes. A really gorgeous vintage Conn that plays amazingly well.

The technical model number for this instrument is a D and Kanstul hasn't made many of them. This one is special, as it was ordered in the style of a Bach bass trombone with tuning in the slide. Additionally it has a removable 2nd valve. More cool stuff, it has a harmonic brace installed which lets you fine tune your vibrance with harmonic pillars none included, but you can get some from Edwards in various metals and sizes.

What more can I say. Another killer custom bass trombone, this time based on a King Duo Gravis. It has a vintage DG bell flare with dependent Getzen rotary valves, original King slide with a Bach 50 slide crook. Might be one of the best playing commercial style bass trombones I've ever had at the shop. Also has a harmonic brace installed which fits Edwards harmonic pillars.

Another one of a kind single valve bass trombone with a "Bartok" 2nd valve, which lets you extend your F tuning slide on a finger paddle. The bell flare is a YBL gold brass flare. The valve section is a Shires trubore and the Bartok mechanism was fabricated by Shires.

The slide is a B62 standard. In great shape and plays great. Used Shires Axial "Thayer" valve section with open wrap. The valve casing and core have just been replaced at the Shires factory with new parts, this is a new valve with vintage tubing. Has the original paddle type thumb trigger. Dig this, this trombone was purchased new in and has been only owned by one person and has spent its life here in LA being used professionally.

The issue I run into when lifting and drinking supplements is that my body looks fine but I start putting on alot of weight in my face. Check this allergic reaction out ahaha. Hard to say without knowing more. Great site and great article.

Prior to the injury I did p90x and classic power lifting techniques. P90 killed my back with the plyometrics. It sounds as though some of the complex movements ie squats, powerlifts would put a lot of strain on my injured disc. Do you guys have other excersises you could recommend that would be more safe with my ailment?

I was planning on doing leg press instead of squats, but it doesnt seem to be as much of a complex movement. Thank you so much and again great job. The video hit home. Exercises like deadlifts, done correctly and with care, can often work magic on back health. I would recommend getting your back checked out by an expert and seeking out a solution that sees it getting stronger.

I believe the order was fulfilled by NOW. I think Amazon may have stopped selling it themselves so you couldnt get it via prime. Checked the NOW website and their still selling it.

They replaced it with Maltodextrin. I just updated it to their new product: Dextrose, if you can find it, is still a totally valid option though. With the training drink what do you suggest a double dose or your suggested triple dose? Most of us, once we start training and eating well, can pack on muscle at alarming rates. I am very interested into your mid workout drink — did i read it was calories!

I am 6ft2 and pounds and my strength has been increasing however I know that my calorie intake is no where near bulk stage. I find it difficult. What makes your mid workout shake so high calories and do you need an post workout shake after it? When doing a single dose you can do it right before, during or right after working out. Yeah … not consuming enough calories is something most of us skinny guys struggle with.

This is one creative way of helping to solve that problem. I hope it helps you man, good luck! Having a solid protein intake is likely more beneficial for guys who are still growing, if anything. Getting most of your protein from whole foods though, since whole foods are higher in vitamins and minerals, is still a good idea. Yes, thanks a lot my older brother has a jar of whey protein I might use that in a couple months after I develop more muscle at least.

Thx for super posts. Even considering IGF, which is last resort for a lady. I would trust your doctor for advice on that one. Keep in mind that if your goal is a very lofty one, that it takes more time, effort and sacrifices to reach it! Shane, It truly does help. Are you recommending malodextrin in the training drink, or dextrose, or are those terms somewhat interchangeable? Great advice, looking forward to giving this a try! Gah — we just switched the above link to maltodextrin.

Forgot to switch it everywhere, I suppose. Hey Shane, nice article. I am a 5ft10 ectomorph that weighed lbs. I started training in mid January this year and since then I have managed to gain 20lbs. Mostly through eating lots of whole foods and upping my calorie intake and incorporating compound lifts bench press, barbell squat, deadlift, chin ups and t-rows into my training plans following your advice.

Just wanted to throw a recommendation out to any other UK people that myprotein. Mixed up the double dose slightly concerned about the triple dose making me fat and it tasted good! Either I have weird taste buds, or these products seem to go together well.

Can you shoot me details of the payment plan, if there is one? Your results are awesome! Our Australians have been buying ground up oats instead of maltodextrin, for example, and our Germans are getting dextrose from DIY beer breweries for unbelievably cheap.

Is it safe to drink 50g whey protein, g maltodextrin, 10g creatine and 5g glutamin mixed with ml in one serving? Do you mean from a hydration standpoint?

I would recommend drinking plenty of water. Maybe that means bringing a water bottle with you. We have water fountains at our gym, so if we make a particularly hearty concoction we also mix in some sips of water. My body is out of proportion.

My arms are so skinny and always have been and I have NO chest and my stomach is fairly flat, not much really going on, so I know that if I can do things right, I could end up getting a pretty decent body. As for now, it seems like the bottom half of me doesnt match the top. So I spoke to friends, watched endless youtube videos on workouts and diets and read endless articles.

Money right now is a bit of an issue so the gym was a no no. The first 2 months went ok, a lot of different variations of push-ups and squats, changed my diet, started eating a lot more, I noticed some kind of improvement in muscle size but in weight I have no idea as I have no scales in my apartment to keep a check.

So right now I find your site and all this great advice and all these questions with great responses and I feel like I can get some genuine great advice now. So first I wanted to ask about the supplements. How many calories should I be consuming daily and how often do you think I should be eating?

Any response would be greatly appreaciated as I am so clueless about what I really should be doing and how! Hey Sambo, thanks for taking the time to write us! None of these supplements are necessary no, and regular whole food has a whole bunch of advantages too, like being unprocessed and packed full of micronutrients.

These supplements may be cheaper than food, so in theory they should help you save money though. Calisthenics working out using your body weight is cool, and you can make muscle gains at first. At a certain point the exercises become too easy, and it becomes less about strength and more about endurance. You can be constantly making things more difficult having someone push down on your back, doing explosive clap pushups, etc but it quickly becomes complicated, and often takes a lot of athleticism handstand pushups, say.

With weights you can constantly be increasing the heaviness, resulting in progressively bigger muscles as your strength increases — much simpler and more reliable. But, as you probably know, sometimes the cheaper route comes with more challenges. How much should you be eating? Enough for your weight to increase! There are some advanced ways of figuring that out, like what we use with our members, but you can often get a rough idea by taking your weight and multiplying it by Hey, ha thanks for the reply, I realised after that the last message was an essay!

By the way I forgot to say before, that video is very impressive and really sold me and if I was in a better financial situation right now I would sign up. Just wanted to ask for your opinion on using waxy maize starch as opposed to dextrin or maltodextrin in post-workout shake.

I started with creatine a couple of months back as per your suggestion and have noticed gains in my lifting capacity but not so much of muscle gain. I am now looking to gain some big ass muscle and hence have a few questions.. How effective are the gainers available in the market?

Are they really effective? What is the best gainer out there in the market which is really helpful for ectomorphs like us? How much of it should be taken per day? Is 1 scoop after breakfast and 1 after workout enough or should i be taking more?

Hey Sushant, glad you got some gains man! Does that make sense? I agree with what other people are saying. Some other favourites of mine are: Still not as good as making your own though.

As for how much you should consume to grow? But your overall intake should be enough for you to gain weight on the scale and improve on your strength in the gym. Surrounding training though you can take advantage of a pretty potent advantage that nutrient timing offers. Would it be possible, especially increase my arm size. You should get started soon though!! However, if I wanted to workout 4 times a week, do you think there would be any negative high calorie effects associated with taking that many calories?

My understanding of the health component of consuming a lot of calories is that it depends on where those calories are going. What a great article, I love the fact that you use research studies to back up your claims. Your photos are also a great testament to your hard work. How gluten free friendly are you guys?

I eat a ton of beans and plenty of potatoes. Lots of guys eat tons of rice and quinoa. Pizza and pasta have never been big favourites of mine even from a taste perspective. What dosages do you reccomend for me personally? Very good article though. I was re-reading the article and was wondering, do I mix 90g of protein, g of carbs, and 15g of creatine also or triple it so it would be g of protein, grams of carbs and 45g of creatine?

Would I mix the 3, drink it before, after or during my workout? When would I have to drink the fish oil? I would start with 30g whey protein and 60g maltodextrin.

If that goes well and it comes time to increase, then up it to 60g whey protein and g maltodextrin. Hey man, I started taking 2 2. I know that creatine has a unique relationship with water but if i have a lot of water, will i flush the creatine out of my system when i go to the bathroom? You want to take in a bit more than you need for that reason.

What is the best dosage for the NutraSea Fish oil? Just pour into a tspoon and consume once a day? Yep, consuming once a day is perfect.

Or are you just using water in your shakes? Are there any advantages or disadvantages to using milk instead of water? Milk is a surprisingly potent workout drink, considering how ridiculously slowly we digest it!

It has a lot of muscle-building benefits built into it, since there are so many rad vitamins and minerals in there, alongside a great source of protein. You may dig this article, too: I have a very limited budget so I would just like to ask if buying creatine and whey protein will be enough?

Or should I buy whey protein and fish oil isntead? I am a beginner when it comes to working out so forgive me for this question. I also read that there are harmful side effects when using fish oil, are those claims true? You can certainly ask your doctor though! I would also get kidney stones.. Or bowel movement would stop or go crazy if you get what I mean lol..

You think this program can help me. Almost all of us run into our share of mishaps, struggles and challenges with this stuff—I know I did! Yes, I think our program could help. We take a pretty methodical approach to this and the goal is to make you even more resistant to injury, not set you up for it.

You may want to get clearance to do squats and deadlifts again, too. You may find value in this article, too: On non-lifting days I try to eat as much whole nutritious food as possible. When it comes to starches my go-to favourites are: There are tons of options out there—another big favourite for a lot of healthfully-minded dudes is quinoa.

Do you consume the same amount of supplement servings on your rest days as well, or is it only on workout days? Are there any alternate body building supplements without Creatine, because doctor suggested me not to use because.

Creatine is not suitable for me. And fish oil is still a great addition to your daily nutrition. However, the protocol seems a little scary. What do you suggest? I was thinking of going for whey protein first. But would that not add a lot of gains? I hope I converted that right. I wanna gain muscles so bad.. I went through the comments and i hope that you reply on the few ones on top. That will clear out and help me a big time. Hey Sultan, I try to answer every single question!

Do i have to take creatine dosage plus add creatine it to my drink for workout day or the drink is enough? The workout drink is more than enough creatine for the day! Hi Shane my name is Ryan, I just so happened to stumble across one of your articles a couple hours ago and since then have thoroughly enjoyed most of what your website has to offer. Must say very impressed! A lot has changed since high school, I am 20 years old now and 5 months away from shipping out for basic training for the military cant enlist until braces are off.

Now couple years later terrible diet, virtually no excersise, and no supplements. I am 6foot 1 and pounds. Not chubby at all but def fat has hidden my 6 pack away: As I said I have a few months to jump back on board and I am dead serious about getting in the best shape of my life.

I just bought YMCA membership and signed up for swimming lessons. I want to bulk up with some serious muscle mass and burn some of this 22 percent body fat and get it back down to healthy level.

Or will I need to make adjustments? Most people need to make some adjustment or another, as everyone is a little different. Yep, the workout shake will still work. Just stick with a single dose—for now at least.

Hope you decide to join us man! What would you suggest? We live in Toronto too. Seems like a great place to train at! Fish oil timing is one of those cases.

This program sounds awesome! And man, looking at this site just makes me so excited to join and try! Thanks for the heads up Oliver! Hey Shane, thanks for your reply. I noticed that you have updated the links, but not all of them. The ones of whey protein and Maltodextrin are still invalid. Do you mean what do we mix the powders with?

Some of our guys use milk though and use a bit less whey and maltodextrin so that it has the same overall nutrient breakdown. I only weigh 47kg. Can you please suggest me a good one. They seem to be broken right now, as bodybuilding. Sorry for the confusion!

So which one will give me better result. Still working on it! Hi Shane, thanks for the great post here. The info you guys provide has been very helpful in my quest to gain weight. I just started using the fish oil that you have recommended thanks for the links and you were right, this stuff is really quite easy to take. However, I just read a study which links omega 3s to a higher risk of prostate cancer. I was wondering if you have read this study yet?

I figured I will talk to my doctor about this one before continuing with the omega supplements. Oh man that study has been making waves! Interestingly enough, fish oil actually reduces your chance of getting prostate cancer in several other ways: Aaaaand keep in mind that MOST studies still show that consumption of omega 3s reduces your risk of prostrate cancer! The media is always coming out with sensational stuff like this, as this new research is shock worthy and increases readership.

Thanks Shane, what a great article! As a ectomorph struggling to put on weight this is very helpful. I was going through the comments and must appreciate the fact that you take the time to answer all questions your readers have.

Most of my doubts got clarified as I went through your answers. No problem Misha, glad it helped! And this post is broscience all the way. Just eat and lift heavy. My legs could use a lot more work though. I looking to gain another 10 to 15 pounds of muscle. I train for strength as well for definition.

You may not be a hardgainer at all, just a poor eater! You sounds like a good fit for this program, yeah.

We can definitely bulk up the stilts, and nothing will do a better job of giving you a strong balanced physique than squats and deadlifts! Hey Shane, what is your opinion on oatmass as an alternative to maltodextrin? Or, rather, blended oats, as they are essentially the same, right? This stuff is working! However, Ive gained unwanted fat in my middle section, and thighs, where that was never happening in the past.

I weigh now around lbs. I still appear skinny to most, but I may be average. Do youvthinkbthos program is right for me? Most guys have a bit of this or that mixed in, often in the form of carrying a little bit extra around the middle hehe. Now, here comes the problem: Does you guys or any one of your clients ever got ANY stretch marks on your skin due to rapid muscle building?

A lot of us ectomorphs have stretch marks from growing UPwards though. A lot of us take to puberty by rapidly shooting sky high instead of getting muscular, it seems. It awes me how much you guys are into this for us, ectomorphs. The past two weeks I merely stood at my current weight. I want to have the leanest possible bulk ever cutting being an ectomorph? I know what you mean. By super leanly bulking you can always maintain your strength of being lean while adding on the new strength of being strong and healthy.

You need to gain weight to grow, so a calorie surplus is your friend! I like to track using the vein on my bicep. I take creatine with some food and use whey after workout but how to use dextrose and maltodextrin: Shane, I read that you use 15g of Creatine when you try to gain some weight. Is this true or is our maximum of creatine as being an ectomorph much higher? Yeah I used to take 15g of creatine spaced out over a couple hours.

Some creatine might have been flushed out, yeah. Hey Shane I wanted to know other than the days im working out and making that double dose shake, should i be having just a regular whey protein shake the days im off? And is having all that protein healthy for you? Universal Torrent is a pretty good gainer, although once you start having several servings at once the cost quickly adds up!

The maltodextrin they load the stuff with costs them pennies and costs you several dollars. I figure may as well just buy it yourself, mix your own perfect ratio, and save a bit of money.

Can trim the doses down and fiddle with things if you ever decide to cut or anything. Getting your protein from a variety of sources is best, and yep whey protein is a totally valid place to get it.

I get more than enough there. Can you refresh the links of the lists of supplements please. Thanks in advance for your reach article that helps me a lot.

Lets say will I have to increase my protein intake overtime? And I also read that your body absorbs about 25g of protein in an hour so what would be the point of doubling your protein intake if it would all be converted into waste?

I am looking forward to stop drinking Gatorade as it contains quite a lot of sugars, and buy maltodextrin instead as it looks much healthier, thank you Shane for your time and keep it up! Your site is great. Thanks for the kind words Juan! Comments like yours are why I love writing blog articles so much. Gold Standard is sweet. ON is a good company. Bananas are sweet too, and a great source of vitamins and minerals as well as being a good source of carbs.

I think Gatorade is made out of sucrose, which contains fructose. Fructose is absorbed very differently from glucose and not necessarily in a beneficial way. Not the best thing to be taking in high doses while training. I mean bananas have so many amazing things going for them. If you like the flavour of Gatorade, you could try adding a scoop of Xtend to your drink.

You can buy flavouring like citric acid separately too. Yep, you can develop an intolerance from eating too much of anything, really! If your body can only absorb 25g of protein in an hour then drinking more than 25g of whey in an hour will just mean that it takes longer than an hour to digest all of the protein! If we just peed calories out if we ate them too fast that would be the best news ever for chubby guys and gals, who, presumably, could eat entire cakes just fine so long as they ate them quickly enough.

I use a protein shaker 20oz. You could drink 1 in the change room beforehand, 1 in the gym and 1 after. Thanks Shane for all the help and advice. Can i make this with milk or is the taste not gonna be as good? Also how much milk would you use if you use 28 oz of water? You could probably make it with milk so long as you feel good while drinking it.

Could be that fat soluble vitamins, like vitamin D, work better in whole fat milk. Shane im sure you answered this somehwere but since carbo gain doesnt have a scoop how do you measure out a serving size?

Or how many scoops would i use if i used the scooper from the gold whey box. The tub should have nutrition information on the side … but who weighs their food? Right now Jared and I are trying waximaize maltodextrin is way more enjoyable — waximaize seems to be the twin of corn starch and it came with a scoop. And can you help me choose the best creatine brand? Dextrose tastes like milk sugar, and waximaize tastes like cornstarch — up to your taste buds!

Might be better for the teeth, too? Have it right after you finish your workout. That will double the dose and give you some extra calories and extra protein to play around with. No need to double the creatine, although you could! I am 17 years of age. I know eating more and being beastlier in the kitchen is easier said than done, so just take it day by day and try to build up progressively better and better habits!

After all your gains, do you still take supplements? I mean, when people reach their goals in terms of bodyweight, do they stop taking supps easily?

I ask because in my country supps are overtaxed, so I see it as an investment, instead of a cheaper alternative to food. I stress constantly about it, and I just been thinking about anything that could help me with building muscle drug-free is a go, so supplements are my first choice. Buuut… people become hostage to this shit. I wonder if it would be possible to drop naturally, with ease, them once I packed those 20 lb.

Would you guys mind telling me a little about your thoughts and experiences? I used to wonder that all the time myself. Ergogenic supplements SuperPump, NO xplode, jack3d, etc: I felt like I went from being superman to a weak old man when I stopped training with them. The homemade ones are very cheap, and, for MOST people, cheaper than their whole food equivalents. You can accomplish your gains and then use very minimal dosages or stop using them entirely.

Gainers QuickMass, Serious Mass, etc: Kind of useless to begin with and massively overpriced. Food replacements, like whey protein: Stuff like fish oil you might want to take forever. Stuff like vitamin D is tricky to get naturally, as you need to be outside a lot to encourage your body to synthesize enough of it. Most people need to supplement with it or drink milk, which is fortified with it. Anyway, the short answer to your question is no: If nutritious whole food is cheaper and more accessible for you and you have the appetite to eat it then you could forget about supplements altogether!

Good luck gaining your final 20!! Supplements are still cheaper than most whole foods, but not as cheap as you might think. It is still cheaper taking malto than buying whole food price per calorie , but in the specific case of whey and pre-wo, they are way off the range.

Yeah, that helped a lot! So, did you stop taking supps entirely now that you reached your final weight? I really like it, and I like having goals to work towards. I still take supplements. It sounds like things are different where you live — I do know that food in Canada is expensive relative to other countries — but whey here in Toronto is muuuch cheaper than, say, chicken breasts, steak or ground meat.

If you call it a supplement I also absolutely adore coffee! I have a nice hot mug before pretty much every workout and love it pretty heartily. As for your creatine questions: Not everyone gets water retention from creatine. All the extra muscle you built while on it … that will stay. How much lean mass can you expect to gain? I went in an added a bunch of studies to the creatine section today.

Well, that was the original plan. To be completely honest, I did take around g of malto after workout days for a few weeks and gained some weight. Not that much, though, never passed on my max weight.

Maybe 1 or 2 lbs. VERY slowly, way slower than I would see elsewhere. One thing is the scale moving slowly, other thing is the scale not moving at all! Had problems with whey concentrate, might try isolate. Focus on moving up your weight on the scale each week instead i. Now that you have my info, my questions: Do you recommend otherwise, and how many servings per day and when is the best time? Please mention the creatine servings too.

I noticed last year, although not sure, that briefly taking Whey with milk induced mildish stomach pains. Also, how much cardio should I do? Is a minute session good enough? I usually go start with 1 set wide pull-ups, 1 set push-ups, then 1 set dumb-bell chest-press, 1 set crunches. REST, repeat 3 times. I substitute the chest-press with the lat pulldown on alternate days, and also include bicep curls, and traps sometimes, and holding a dumbbell while squatting.

What do you suggest overall, and how is my plan looking? There is s till a Flat Earth Society , and it is not a parody. I have looked into fringe claims for many years and few of them have proven valid; even if many were, their potential importance to the human journey was often minor to trifling.

Quite o ften, the pioneers of science and technology receive no credit at all , not even posthumous vindication , as others steal their work and become rich and famous. But if private and governmental interests do not suppress the data and theory, as is regularly achieved regarding alternative energy and other disruptive technologies , usually the data will eventually win. But the data does not always win. Lead received a similar clean bill of health by industrially funded laboratories as the conflicts of interest were surreal, and the public was completely unaware of who was really managing such public health issues and why.

Similar situations exist today. Perhaps the most significant challenge to mainstream science is the fact that numerous advanced technologies already exist on Earth, including free energy and antigravity technologies, but they are actively kept from public awareness and use. They and other exotic technologies developed in the above-top-secret world operate on principles that make the physics textbooks resemble cave drawings. Thou sands of scientists and inventors have independently pursued FE technologies, but all such efforts, if they had promise or garnered any success, have been suppressed by a clandestine and well-funded effort of global magnitude.

Although the gr eatest physicists were arguably mystical in their orientation , they rarely explored the nature of consciousness in the way that modern human potential efforts have. When I was 16 years old, it was demonstrated to me, very dramatically, that everybody inherently possesses psychic abilities , which falsifies today's materialistic theories of consciousness.

Millions of people had similar experiences during the last decades of the 20 th century when performing such exercises. Far too often, when scientists discuss materialism, they compare it to organized religion, particularly its fundamentalist strains, as if those are the only two alternatives, when they are on opposite ends of a spectrum in one way and two sides of the same coin in others. Ironically, organized skepticism is largely comprised of anti-scientists who try to deny that such abilities of consciousness are even worthy of scientific investigation.

That would be like asking a Wall Street executive in the s what his opinion of communism was. I was also regularly dismayed by orthodox scientific and academic works that dealt with the human brain, consciousness, human nature, UFOs , FE technology, and the like, in which the authors accepted declassified government documents at face value as in not wondering what else remained classified, for starters or looked no further than 19 th -century investigations.

Armchair scientists who accept the skeptics' word for it have taken the easy way out and rely on highly unreliable "investigators" to tell them about the nature of reality. They consequently do not have informed opinions, or perhaps more accurately, they have disinformed opinions.

Not all main stream scientists relegate consciousness to a mere byproduct of chemistry. The greatest physicists knew that materialism was a doctrine built on unprovable assumptions, which amounts to a faith.

White scie nce still has almost nothing to say about the nature of consciousness. However, Black Science covert, largely privatized, and the same province where that advanced technology is sequestered is somewhat familiar with the nature of consciousness and considers it to be far more than a byproduct of chemistry. The assumption that the entire universe is a manifestation of consciousness is not only unassailable by White Science, but is probably a foundational assumption of Black Science and mystics.

The ba ttle between materialists and religious orders over the years, in which materialist evolutionists grapple with creationists and intelligent design proponents, seems to be a feud between two fundamentalist camps. Nowhere in such battles are the abilities or wisdom of accomplished mystics found. The nature and role of consciousness, both in this dimension and beyond it, are likely far too subtle to be profitably engaged by the level of debate that predominates today.

As this essay will explore later, those issues are not merely fodder for idle philosophical pursuit, but at their root lies the crux of the current conundrum that humanity finds itself in, as we race toward our self-destruction. White Science does not really know what energy is ; it can only describe its measurable effects.

Our universe may have begun as pure energy and even if it did not, all matter appears to be comprised of energy , and consciousness may be required for our universe to exist at all, which may be part of the quantum paradox. There is evidence that evolution is not purely the province of chance mutations, but that organisms can affect their evolution at the genetic level.

The gre atest scientists readily admitted that the theories and data of physics, that hardest of the hard sciences, drew highly limited descriptions of reality, and those scientists were usually, to one extent or another, mystics. If textbook science falls far short of explaining reality, what can be said within its framework that is useful? Our industrialized world is based on textbook science and feats such as putting men on the Moon were performed within the parameters of textbook science.

With the waning of overspecialization and overreliance on reductionism in the last decades of the 20 th century, multidisciplinary works have proliferated and will tend to dominate the references for this essay. I have found them not only very helpful for my own understanding, but they are appropriate references for a generalist essay.

I have also avoided scientific terminology when feasible. The main stream theory is that matter consists of elementary particles which are all forms of energy , and their interaction with the Higgs field is responsible for all mass. Almost all mass in the known universe consists of protons in hydrogen atoms, and those protons are in turn comprised of quarks , and electrons and neutrinos are the other first generation fundamental particles.

Protons have a positive electric charge, electrons a negative charge, and neutrinos no net charge. Today, mainstream science recognizes four forces in the universe: Gravity attracts matter to matter, and is thought to be responsible for the formation of stars, planets, and galaxies.

But the universe seems to be built from processes , not objects. If FE, antigravity, and related technologies finally come in from the shadows, the elusive Unified Field may come with them, and the Unified Field might well be consciousness, which will help unite the scientist and the mystic, and that field may be divine in nature. Energy may be best seen as motion Electron shells, how they are filled, and reactivity Helium and the noble gases Electron energy and quantum leaping Temperature How atoms react Elements in the human body Types of electron bonds, including hydrogen bonds This c hapter presents several energy and chemistry concepts essential to this essay.

Even though scientists do not really know what energy is they do not know what light or gravity are , either , energy is perhaps best seen as motion, whether it is a photon flying through space, the "orbit" of an electron around an atom's nucleus or of Earth around the Sun, an object falling to Earth, a river flowing toward the ocean, air moving through Earth's atmosphere, rising and falling tides, and blood moving through a heart. The classical view of an electron had an electron orbiting the nucleus much in the same way that Earth orbits the Sun, but quantum theory presents a different picture, in which an electron is a wave that only appears to be a particle when it is observed.

When one electron shell is filled, electrons begin to fill shells farther from the nucleus. For the simplest atoms it works that way, but for larger atoms, particularly those of metallic elements, electrons fill shells in more complex fashion and electrons begin to fill subshells not necessarily in the shell closest to the nucleus.

When an electron is unpaired or in an unfilled shell, it can be a valence electron, which can form bonds with other atoms. In most circumstances, only unpaired electrons form bonds with other atoms.

Electron bonds between atoms provide the basis for chemistry and life on Earth. For that simplest element, hydrogen, its lone electron has an affinity to pair up with another electron, and that smallest shell contains two electrons. Hydrogen is never found in its monoatomic state in nature, but is bonded to other elements, as that lone electron finds another one to pair with, which also fills that simplest shell.

In its pure state in nature, hydrogen is found paired with itself and forms a diatomic molecule. In chemistry notation, it is presented as H 2.

Fluorine is so reactive that if it were sprayed on water, the water would burn. The ele ment with two protons in its nucleus is helium the number of protons determines what element the atom is , and its electrons are paired and its shell is filled. Consequently, helium does not want to share its electrons with anything. Helium is the most non-reactive element known. It has never bonded with any other element, even fluorine.

Their electron shells are completely filled. It is not a smooth variation of distance, but only certain distances are possible. When an electron changes its distance, it jumps in a process known as quantum leaping. That quantum leaping reflects how electrons gain or release energy. When light hits an atom, if it is absorbed by an electron, the photon gives the electron the energy to move to an orbit farther away. When an electron emits light, that lost photon removes energy and the electron falls to a lower orbit.

The potential energy in the electron as it orbits the nucleus and the potential energy in a rock that I hold above the ground are similar, as the diagram below demonstrates. Below is a diagram of a hydrogen atom as its electron orbits farther from the nucleus when it absorbs energy. As the diagram depicts, the atom gets larger. Lateral movement also called translational motion is called temperature.

While finding an accurate definition of temperature can be a frustrating experience, temperature is a measure of the kinetic energy the energy of motion in matter. As with the behavior of photons, at the atomic level the concept of temperature can break down, and classical behaviors emerge as groups of atoms lose their quantum properties.

The transferred energy can be stored by the electrons leaping into higher orbits. They can in turn release that energy in the form of photons and return to lower orbits. The increas ed movement of heated atoms is why substances expand in volume. The more motion, the higher the temperature, and just as an engine will fly apart when the RPMs go too high, when an atom vibrates too fast, an electron can leave the atom entirely and the atom becomes an ion.

As substances become hotter, the electrons will be in higher orbits, and will fall farther when giving off photonic energy, so the photons have more energy shorter wavelengths. Get a substance hot enough and it will emit photons that we can see visible light. Those first visible photons will be on the lower end of the spectrum of light that we can see with our eyes, and will be red.

Get the substance hotter and the light can turn white, which means that we are seeing the full visible spectrum of light. Get matter hot enough and it becomes plasma , as electrons float in a soup with nuclei. Those electrons are too energetic to be captured by nuclei and placed into shells. When tw o atoms come close to each other, if the potential energy of their combined state is less than their potential energy when they are separate, the atoms will tend to react.

But the reaction only happens when the electron shells come into an alignment so that the reaction can happen. If the shells do not meet in the proper alignment and velocity, the reaction will not happen and the atoms will bounce away from each other.

The faster and more often the atoms collide, the likelier they are to react and reach that lower energy state. Chemical electron shell reactions need to reach their activation energy to occur, and this is measured in temperature. The activation energy for hydrogen and oxygen to react and form water is about degrees Celsius o C. The fusion of a helium nucleus releases more than a million times the energy that it takes to ionize a hydrogen atom. As will be discussed later , some reactions have a cumulative result of absorbing energy , while others release it.

The first can be seen as an investment of energy, while the second can be seen as consuming it. Below is a diagram of two hydrogen atoms before and after reaction, as they bond to form H 2. Elements with their electron shells mostly, but not completely, filled are, in order of electronegativity: In that upper right corner of the periodic table , of largely filled electron shells, phosphorus and sulfur also reside.

Carbon and hydrogen have their valence shells half filled. Flu orine forms the smallest negatively charged ions known to science and wrecks organic molecules for reasons discussed later in this essay. Organisms do not use fluorine, except for some plants that use it as a poison. The classic example of this is the water molecule. In a body of water, oxygen atoms will attract hydrogen atoms of neighboring molecules, and a relatively weak attraction known as a hydrogen bond forms.

Below is a picture of hydrogen bonds in water. Those hydrogen bonds make water the miraculous substance that it is. The unusual surface tension of water is due to hydrogen bonding. Water has a very high boiling point for its molecular weight compare the boiling points of water and carbon dioxide , for instance because of that hydrogen bonding. Those energy and chemistry concepts should make this essay easier to digest. Timelines of En ergy, Geology, and Early Life. Provides the power for all of Earth's geophysical, geochemical, and ecological systems, with the only exception being radioactivity within Earth.

Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions by millions of times, making all but the simplest life pre- LUCA possible. Oxygen is generated, which complex life will later use, which makes non-aquatic life possible and also preserves the global ocean. Allows for larger cells and far greater energy generation capacity — pound for pound, a complex cell uses energy , times as fast as the Sun creates it. Dramatic climb in atmospheric oxygen , to eventually achieve modern levels, begins. Largest organisms ever, and greatest energy storage and delivery to any biome, and they become the basis for coal.

Among the first terrestrial animals with upright posture, enabling great aerobic capacity and domination of terrestrial environments. Great energy innovation to reduce reproductive costs, and animals are the beneficiaries, as they act as reproductive enzymes in greatest symbiosis of plant and animal life, which allows flowering plants to dominate terrestrial ecosystems.

Allows protohumans to leave trees , become Earth's dominant predator , alter ecosystems , and cooked food helped spur dramatic biological changes, including encephalization in human line.

Changes the terms of engagement with prey and reduces hunting risk of large animals and increases effectiveness. Allows for first low-energy transportation, and ability to travel to unpopulated continents. Provides the local and stable energy supply that allowed for sedentary human populations and civilization. Allows for tools highly improved over stone, for greater energy effectiveness of human activities. Turns global ocean into low-energy transportation lane and allows Europe to conquer the world.

First attempt to create "free energy" technology is abandoned due to lack of funding. First man-powered flight , and establishment of first company to mass-produce automobiles. Albert Einstein published his special theory of relativity and equation for converting mass to energy. Forms the framework for 20 th century physics, including the energy that can be liberated from an atom's nucleus. Oil-rich Ottoman Empire dismembered by industrial powers , establishing imperial and neocolonial rule in Middle East.

USA harnesses the atom's power, and first use is vaporizing two cities , and the greatest period of economic prosperity in history begins. The USA's national security state is born , Roswell incident. This is the final technology, along with free energy technology, to make humanity a universally prosperous and space-faring species.

Former astronaut nearly dies immediately after rejecting the American military's UFO research "offer". The incident is one of many that demonstrate that the UFO issue is very real, but happened to somebody close to me. A close personal friend is shown free energy and antigravity technologies, among others , and another close friend had free energy technology demonstrated.

Those incidents are two of many that demonstrate that the free energy suppression issue is very real, but were witnessed by people close to me. Abbreviated Geologic Time Scale. Earth , Moon , and oceans form. Earth is bombarded with planetesimals. Atmosphere is primarily comprised of carbon dioxide. Too much uncertainty and too little evidence to confidently draw maps, but landmasses existed.

Earth cools to habitable temperature. Continents begin forming and growing. Atmosphere is mostly nitrogen, but oxygen begins to increase.

All life is bacterial. Oxygenic photosynthesis first appears. Complex cell eukaryote first appears. Aerobic respiration first appears. Sexual reproduction first appears.

Grazing of photosynthetic organisms first appears. Supercontinent Rodinia breaks up. Second Snowball Earth event. Atmosphere oxygenated to near modern levels.

Final banded iron formations appear. First land plants may have appeared. Deep ocean is oxygenated. Mass extinction of microscopic eukaryotes. First large animals appear. First mass diversification of complex life. Most modern phyla appear. Paleo-Tethys Ocean begins forming. Ice age begins and causes mass extinction which ends period.

Complex life continues diversifying. First large reefs appear. Mollusks proliferate and diversify. Nautiloids are apex predators. First fossils of land plants recovered from Ordovician sediments. Period ends with first great mass extinction of complex life. Hot, shallow seas dominate biomes. Climate and sea level changes cause minor extinctions. Reefs recover and expand.

Fish begin to develop jaws. First invasions of land by animals. First vascular plants appear. Continents closing to form Pangaea, ice age begins at end of Devonian and cause mass extinction , possibly initiated by first forests sequestering carbon.

First vertebrates invade land. Atmospheric oxygen levels highest ever, likely due to carbon sequestration by coal swamps. Ice age increases in extent, causing collapse of rainforest. First permanent land colonization by vertebrates. Fungus appears that digests lignin.

Great mountain-building and volcanism as Pangaea forms, and its formation initiates the greatest mass extinction in eon of complex life. Synapsid reptiles dominate land.

Conifer forests first appear. Pangaea begins to break up. Greenhouse Earth begins and lasts the entire Mesozoic Era. Stony corals appear as reefs slowly recover. Northern continents split from southern continents. Atlantic Ocean begins to form. Sea levels dramatically rise. Continents continue to separate. Asteroid impact drives non-bird dinosaurs extinct and ends the Mesozoic Era. Chewing dinosaurs become prominent. Forests near the poles. Rudist bivalves displace coral reefs, but go extinct before the end-Cretaceous extinction.

Greenhouse Earth conditions still prevail, and an anomalous warming occurred to end the epoch. Mammals grow and diversify to fill empty niches left behind by reptiles. Warmest epoch in hundreds of millions of years, but began cooling midway into epoch, beginning Icehouse Earth conditions. Europe collides with Asia, and Asian mammals displace European mammals. A Golden Age of Life on Earth, when life thrived all the way to the poles.

Cooling in Late Eocene drives warm-climate species to extinction. Early whales die out , replaced by whales adapted to new ocean biomes. First half of epoch is warm, and called The Golden Age of Mammals. Apes appear and spread throughout Africa and Eurasia. Apes migrate back to Africa in cooling, while some remain in Southeast Asia. Earth continues to cool, and land bridge of North and South America initiates mass extinction of South American mammals and initiates current ice age.

First stone tools made at end of epoch. Mammals already cold-adapted, and relatively few extinctions, until the rise of humans. Interglacial period in current ice age, and recent and probably human-caused warming may extend the interglacial period. Mass extinctions of large animals happen wherever humans begin to appear. By the 21 st century, the Sixth Mass Extinction in the eon of complex life appears to be underway, entirely caused by humans.

First major ice age begins snowball Earth event. Orthodox hypotheses for the beginning of the universe , and formation and composition of the Sun and its planets Sun's influence on Earth, which is primarily an energy influence Earth's composition and early development Earth's geophysical and geochemical processes , and their interactions with life processes In the tables above, some dates have ranges as such old dates often have relatively thin evidence supporting them, which can be interpreted in different ways.

Those dates will be adjusted as the scientific evidence and theories develop. As I was writing this essay, a study was published that may have pushed back the beginning of the Great Oxygenation Event by several hundred million years. After t he Big Bang , when matter began to coalesce, virtually all mass in the universe was contained in hydrogen atoms, with traces of the next two lightest elements: According to the Standard Model , atoms have no mass by themselves, but the field that gives rise to the Higgs Boson provides the mass.

That fusion released a great deal of primordial Big Bang energy, and fusion powers stars. Nuclei larger than the simplest hydrogen nucleus contain neutrons as well as protons.

As the name implies, neutrons have no net electric charge, but have about the same mass as a proton an electron has less than a thousandth the mass of a proton, so virtually all the mass in atoms is provided by its protons and neutrons. Radioactive decay into daughter isotopes is mediated by the weak nuclear force. In the smaller stars that eventually become white dwarfs , the primary fusion process creates oxygen as its heaviest element. Several differe nt fusion processes have been identified, and stars from about half the size of the Sun to about nine times larger can undergo a process known as s-process fusion late in their lives, and that process has created about half of the elements heavier than iron; bismuth is the heaviest element created by the process.

Those heavier elements are eventually blown from the star by its stellar wind as it becomes a white dwarf. Stars with more than nine times the mass of the Sun undergo a different process at the end of their lives. That collapse creates the pressures needed to fuse those other atoms heavier than iron, including the heaviest elements. Uranium is the heaviest naturally produced element.

In an instant, r-process fusion occurs. When a star becomes a supernova, those heavy elements are sprayed into the galactic neighborhood by a stupendous release of fusion energy. Over the subsequent eons, gravity will cause the remnants of stars, and hydrogen that had not yet become a star or did not fuse within a star, to coalesce into an accretion disk , and a new star with its attendant planets will form.

The Sun will take more than ten billion years to live its life cycle before becoming a white dwarf. Large stars burn much more quickly and can become supernovas after as little as ten million years of main-sequence burning. The accretion disk from which the Sun and its planets were formed appeared in a relatively short time, and the disk was originally a molecular cloud that may have been disturbed by an exploding star. A "local" exploding star likely provided the bulk of our solar system's matter, and the entire mess gravitationally collapsed into the disk.

In a mere 50 million years after formation, the Sun became compressed enough to initiate the sustained fusion that still powers it and will for several billion more years. Those that began their lives inside the frost line were rocky, and those outside the frost line were generally comprised of lighter elements. Those planetesimals bombarded the forming planets and increased their mass.

Other planetesimals were ejected from the solar system as the gravity of the Sun and planets whipped them around. Venus and Mars were also bombarded with the lighter elements and may have plentiful water long ago, but only Earth retained its water. The biggest colli sion between Earth and its neighbors may well have created the Moon , and although the currently prevailing hypothesis has plenty of problems, the other hypotheses have more.

At this time, dark energy and dark matter have never been observed. Any theory that relies on unobserved phenomena is going to be highly provisional, and I consider it unlikely that the prevailing cosmological theories a century from now will much resemble those of today. The scale of the universe, from its largest to smallest objects, is truly difficult to imagine, and this animation can help provide some perspective.

The scale of geologic time strains human brains with its immensity. The journey of life on Earth has been greatly affected by geophysical and geochemical processes as well as influences from beyond Earth, such as:. It seems to me, however, that geophysical and geochemical processes are understood better and have more robust data than many other areas of science, so geophysics and geochemistry are areas where I expect fewer radical changes than others.

Maybe that is because it is neither too big nor too small and closer to our daily reality than distant stars or what is happening inside atoms. Tectonic plate movements can alter the circulation of the atmosphere and ocean. Tectonic plates can collide, such as the collision of India into Asia , which formed the Himalayan Mountains and raised the Tibetan Plateau. That may have contributed to the ice age that we currently experience, although other studies indicate that the carbon removal may have been more due to the burial of organic matter.

The debate is continuing as the complex dynamics are subjected to scientific investigation. It is already nearly PPM and rising fast. Ultrav iolet light breaks water vapor into hydrogen and oxygen. Scientists believe that that happened to Venus and Mars, although Venus may have never cooled enough to form liquid water; it split in the atmosphere and hydrogen then escaped to space.

On Earth, that hydrogen liberated by ultraviolet light reacts with atmospheric oxygen and turns back into water before it can escape into space. Photosynthesis led to atmospheric oxygen, which led to the ozone layer that helped prevent the splitting of water, and atmospheric oxygen recaptured hydrogen that would have otherwise escaped to space, which prevented the oceans from disappearing, which probably led to plate tectonics, which led to the formation of granitic continents , which led to land-based life.

In short, life made Earth more conducive to life. That is the most important impact of life on geophysical and geochemical processes, but far from the only one; others will be explored in this essay. Geology in the West is considered to have begun during the Classic Greek period , and Persian and Chinese scholars furthered the discipline during the medieval period.

There is a constant upwelling of mass from the mantle, riding those energy currents. Three bya, the continents may have only had about a quarter of the mass that they do today. The granites formed when basalt was exposed to water , and the process partly replaced heavier iron with lighter sodium and potassium.

Water also became incorporated into the rocks, generally where the heavier oceanic crust was subducted below the lighter continental crust. Those tectonic plates have been likened to the surface of a pot of boiling oatmeal. Plates can collide and form mountains, and they can pull apart and expose the hot interior, which spews out in volcanism at the edges of tectonic plates , including ridges in the oceans. The mantle is thought to be mostly oxygen and silicon, and the remainder is largely composed of the lighter alkali and alkaline earth metals, such as sodium, potassium, and calcium.

Those mantle metals are primarily bound in oxides.

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