Glycemic Index List of Fruits and Vegetables

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A randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the effects of mg alpha-tocopherol on the oxidation resistance of atherogenic lipoproteins. Nutrients , 10 5 , ; https: In , he synthesized it, and in , he won a Nobel Prize for his efforts. Cardiovascular Disease , Cancer. Vitamins reduce risk of vision loss from macular degeneration.

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Health Benefits of Nutritional Supplements

The higher the GI score the quicker the sugar is absorbed into the blood. For reduced sugar craving and help with weight loss the lower the GI score the better. Type Apple 39 12 low Apple Juice 40 10 low Apricot 57 7. The GI list also shows the carbohydrate content for each item as this is related somewhat to the glycemic load for the GI diet.

However it does not necessarily mean that food with a high carbohydrate content will automatically mean a high GI score.

All foods on our GI tables are based on g 3. J R Soc Med 97 Effect of vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D status and bone turnover markers in young adults.

Eur J Clin Nutr Role of vitamin D, its metabolites, and analogs in the management of osteoporosis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 20 3: A high phylloquinone intake is required to achieve maximal osteocalcin gamma-carboxylation.

Am J Clin Nutr 76 5: Vitamin K nutrition and osteoporosis. J Nutr 7: Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: J Bone Min Res 22 4: Gain in bone mineral mass in prepubertal girls years after discontinuation of calcium supplementation: The effect of glucosamine supplementation on people experiencing regular knee pain.

Br J Sports Med 37 1: Association between dietary conjugated linoleic acid and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. J Am Coll Nutr 24 3: Glucosamine sulfate reduces osteoarthritis progression in postmenopausal women with knee osteoarthritis: A cost effectiveness analysis of calcium and vitamin D supplementation, etidronate, and alendronate in the prevention of vertebral fractures in women treated with glucocorticoids.

J Rheumatol 30 1: The effect of calcium supplementation on bone density in premenarcheal females: J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89 Vitamin D3 and calcium to prevent hip fractures in the elderly women.

Combined calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation in elderly women: Osteoporos Int 13 3: Effects of calcium, dairy product, and vitamin D supplementation on bone mass accrual and body composition in year old girls: Skeletal site selectivity in the effects of calcium supplementation on areal bone mineral density gain: J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90 6: Vitamin D supplementation and bone mineral density in early postmenopausal women.

Am J Clin Nutr 77 5: Calcium for prevention of osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 12 9: J Biol Chem 2: Effects of n-3 fatty acids on cartilage metabolism. Proc Nutr Soc 61 3: Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older.

Rates of bone loss in postmenopausal women randomly assigned to one of two dosages of vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr 61 5: Effect of vitamin D supplementation on wintertime and overall bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women. Ann Intern Med 7: A controlled trial of the effect of calcium supplementation on bone density in postmenopausal women.

Association between serum concentrations of hydroxyvitamin D3 and periodontal disease in the US population. Sustained effect of short-term calcium supplementation on bone mass in adolescent girls with low calcium intake.

Fang Fang Zhang and Sarah Booth. Low Vitamin D Linked to Osteoarthritis. AgResearch Magazine July Vitamin A intake and hip fractures among postmenopausal women.

Calcium, vitamin D, milk consumption, and hip fractures: Am J Clin Nutr 77 2: Vitamin D-deficiency in Asia. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol Calcium and vitamin D nutrition and bone disease of the elderly. Public Health Nutr 4 2B: Effects of exercise on bone mineral density in calcium-replete postmenopausal women with and without hormone replacement therapy. Osteoporos Int 14 8: Calcium and vitamin-D supplementation on bone structural properties in peripubertal female identical twins: Osteoporos Int [Epub ahead of print].

Vitamin D supplementation in older women. Longitudinal follow-up of bone mineral density in children with nephritic syndrome and the role of calcium and vitamin D supplements. Nephrol Dial Transplant 20 8: Vitamin D insufficiency in internal medicine residents. Calcif Tissue Int 76 1: Vitamin D in adult health and disease: Harris S, Dawson-Hughes B. Rates of change in bone mineral density of the spine, heel, femoral, neck and radius in healthy postmenopausal women.

Bone Miner 17 1: A randomized, controlled comparison of different calcium and vitamin D supplementation regimens in elderly women after hip fracture: Age Ageing 33 1: Am J Clin Nutr 85 suppl: Nutritional factors in osteoporosis. A randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation on preventing postmenopausal bone loss and modifying bone metabolism using identical twin pairs.

J Bone Miner Res 15 Zinc intakes and plasma concentrations in men with osteoporosis: Nutrition in Bone Health Revisited: A Story Beyond Calcium. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures.

N Engl J Med 7: Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and childhood bone mass at age 9 years: Calcium supplementation and increases in bone mineral density in children. N Engl J Med 2: Dietary silicon intake is positively associated with bone mineral density in men and premenopausal women of the Framingham Offspring Cohort. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 19 2: Calcium supplementation and bone mineral accretion in adolescent girls: Am J Clin Nutr 87 2: Vitamin D and calcium supplementation prevents osteoporotic fractures in elderly community dwelling residents: J Bone Miner Res 19 3: A follow-up study on the effects of calcium-supplement withdrawal and puberty on bone acquisition of children.

A randomized double-blind controlled calcium supplementation trial, and bone and height acquisition in children. Br J Nutr Bone mineral acquisition in low calcium intake children following the withdrawal of calcium supplement.

Double-blind, controlled calcium supplementation and bone mineral accretion in children accustomed to a low-calcium diet. Vitamin D supplementation and fracture incidence in elderly persons: Ann Intern Med 4: Calcium supplementation and bone mineral density in adolescent girls.

Effect of boron supplementation on blood and urinary calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus, and urinary boron in athletic and sedentary women.

Effects of boron supplementation on bone mineral density and dietary, blood, and urinary calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and boron in female athletes.

Environ Health Perspect Suppl 7: Supplementation with oral vitamin D3 and calcium during winter prevents seasonal bone loss: J Bone Miner Res 19 8: Prevention of hip fractures by correcting calcium and vitamin D insufficiencies in elderly people. Scand J Rheumatol Suppl Can vitamin D supplementation reduce the risk of fracture in the elderly? A randomized controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res 17 4: Serum retinol levels and the risk of fracture.

Efficacy of a progressive walking program and glucosamine sulphate supplementation on osteoarthritic symptoms of the hip and knee: Arthrit Res Ther 12 1: A co-twin study of the effect of calcium supplementation on bone density during adolescence. Osteoporos Int 7 3: Meta-analyses of therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Meta-analysis of the efficacy of vitamin D treatment in preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Endocr Rev 23 4: Effect of calcium or 25OH vitamin D3 dietary supplementation on bone loss at the hip in men and women over the age of J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85 9: Randomised controlled trial of calcium and supplementation with cholecalciferol vitamin D3 for prevention of fractures in primary care.

Soy protein and isoflavones: Am J Clin Nutr 68 6 Suppl: Vitamin D and health in the 21st century: Am J Clin Nutr 80 suppl: Correcting calcium nutritional deficiency prevents spine fractures in elderly women. J Bone Miner Res 11 Long-term effects of calcium supplementation on bone loss and fractures in postmenopausal women: Effect of calcium supplementation on bone loss in postmenopausal women.

Calcium supplementation suppresses bone turnover during weight reduction in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res Magnesium intake from food and supplements is associated with bone mineral density in healthy older white subjects.

J Am Geriatr Soc 53 The Role of Trace Minerals in Osteoporosis. Effect of folate and mecobalamin on hip fractures in patients with stroke: Meta-analysis of calcium supplementation for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

The roles of vitamins D and K in bone health and osteoporosis prevention. Proc Nutr Soc 56 3: Chemistry, nutritional sources, tissue distribution and metabolism of vitamin K with special reference to bone health. J Nutr 4 Suppl: Effect of a calcium and exercise intervention on the bone mineral status of y-old adolescent girls.

Spinal bone loss in postmenopausal women supplemented with calcium and trace minerals. Evaluation of glucosamine sulfate compared to ibuprofen for the treatment of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis: J Rheumatol 28 6: Hypovitaminosis D in medical inpatients. Effect of four monthly oral vitamin D3 cholecalciferol supplementation on fractures and mortality in men and women living in the community; randomized double blind controlled trial.

The need for more vitamin D. Vitamin D supplementation suppresses age-induced bone turnover in older women who are vitamin D deficient. One year of oral calcium supplementation maintains cortical bone density in young adult female distance runners. Effect of vitamin K2 treatment on carboxylation of osteocalcin in early postmenopausal women.

Gynecological Endocrinology 22 8: Vitamin D supplementation during infancy is associated with higher bone mineral mass in prepubertal girls.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab Am J Clin Nutr 85 2: Current maternal-infant micronutrient status and the effects on birth weight in the United Arab Emirates. East Mediterr Health J 15 6: Growth and development in term infants fed long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: Visual, cognitive, and language assessments at 39 months: Pediatrics 3 Pt 1: Folic acid supplementation and the occurrence of congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, multiple births, and miscarriage.

Am J Clin Nutr 81 suppl: Bath SC et al. Effect of inadequate iodine status in UK pregnant women on cognitive outcomes in their children: Calcium supplementation to prevent hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Prevention of neural-tube defects with folic acid in China. Vitamin B12 status of pregnant Indian women and cognitive function in their 9-year-old children.

Food Nutr Bull 29 4: Dietary essential fatty acid supply and visual acuity development. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci A randomized controlled trial of early dietary supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and mental development in term infants. Dev Med Child Neurol 42 3: J Nutr 6: Occurrence of omphalocele in relation to maternal multivitamin use: Occurrence of congenital heart defects in relation to maternal multivitamin use.

Am J Epidemiol 9: Dietary omega-3 fatty acids for women. Serum vitamin D levels and markers of severity of childhood asthma in Costa Rica. Effect of calcium supplementation on pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia: Maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy and risk of recurrent wheeze in children at 3 y of age. Am J Clin Nutr 85 3: Visual-acuity development in healthy preterm infants: Am J Clin Nutr 58 1: Effect of antioxidants on the occurrence of pre-eclampsia in women at increased risk: Vitamin C and E supplementation in women at risk of preeclampsia is associated with changes in indices of oxidative stress and placental function.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 3: Antioxidant vitamin status during pregnancy in relation to cognitive development in the first two years of life. Early Hum Dev 85 7: Christian P, Stewart CP. Maternal micronutrient deficiency, fetal development, and the risk of chronic disease.

J Nutr 3: Maternal vitamin D deficiency, ethnicity and gestational diabetes. Diabet Med 25 6: Developmental origins of osteoporotic fracture: Do multivitamin supplements attenuate the risk for diabetes-associated birth defects?. Czeizel AE, Dudas I. Prevention of the first occurrence of neural-tube defects by periconceptional vitamin supplementation. The effect of oral magnesium substitution on pregnancy induce leg cramps. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1: Folate levels and neural tube defects: Dawodu A, Wagner CL.

Mother-child vitamin D deficiency: Arch Dis Child 92 9: Denise HM Heppe et al. Maternal first-trimester diet and childhood bone mass: Am J Clin Nutr doi: Maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy and early childhood wheezing. Low maternal vitamin E intake during pregnancy is associated with asthma in 5-year-old children. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in newborn infants of high-risk mothers. Maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy is inversely associated with asthma and allergic rhinitis in 5-year-old children.

Clin Exp Allergy 39 6: Maternal vitamin B12 and the risk of fetal neural tube defects in Egyptian patients. Clin Lab 53 Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and child outcomes. Eur J Clin Nutr 62 1: Maternal serum hydroxyvitamin d and measures of newborn and placental weight in a U. Effect of increasing breast milk docosahexaenoic acid on plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids fatty acids and neural indices of exclusively breast fed infants. Eur J Clin Nutr 51 9: The effect of zinc supplementation on pregnancy outcome.

Effects of maternal vitamin A status on kidney development: Pediatr Nephrol 22 2: Rev Obstet Gynecol 1 4: Folic acid supplements in pregnancy and early childhood respiratory health. Arch Dis Child 94 3: Vitamin D supplementation and reduced risk of preeclampsia in nulliparous women. Maternal folate and cobalamin status predicts vitamin status in newborns and 6-month-old infants. The role of polyunsaturated fatty acids in term and preterm infants and breastfeeding mothers.

Pediatr Clin North Am 48 1: Similar effects on infants of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids supplementation to pregnant and lactating women. Prevention of preeclampsia by linoleic acid and calcium supplementation: Obstet Gynecol 91 4: Effects of supplementation with omega 3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on retinal and cortical development in premature infants.

Am J Clin Nutr 57 5 Suppl: Vitamin D requirement during pregnancy and lactation. J Bone Miner Res 22 Suppl 2: Nutritional vitamin D status during pregnancy: Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in pregnant women: Br J Nutr 6: Essential fatty acids in mothers and their neonates.

Low serum vitamin B12 is associated with recurrent pregnancy loss in Syrian women. Clin Chem Lab Med 46 9: Hyppönen E, Boucher BJ. Avoidance of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy in the United Kingdom: Br J Nutr 3: The effect of maternal and cord-blood vitamin C, vitamin E and lipid peroxide levels on newborn birth weight. Effects of maternal docosahexaenoic acid intake on visual function and neurodevelopment in breastfed term infants. Am J Clin Nutr 82 1: Maternal dietary intake of vitamin A and risk of orofacial clefts: Am J Epidemiol Kaitlin M March et al.

First published July 8, , doi: Intake of vitamin C and E in pregnancy and risk of pre-eclampsia: High frequency of maternal vitamin B12 deficiency as an important cause of infantile vitamin B12 deficiency in Sanliurfa province of Turkey. Eur J Nutr 45 5: Vitamin D in pregnancy and lactation: Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: Vitamin D deficiency in a healthy group of mothers and newborn infants. Clin Pediatr 46 1: Trial of calcium to prevent preeclampsia.

Impact of maternal probiotic-supplemented dietary counselling on pregnancy outcome and prenatal and postnatal growth: Low maternal vitamin D status and fetal bone development: J Bone Miner Res 25 1: Are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids essential nutrients in infancy?.

Perinatal outcomes, including mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and child mortality and their association with maternal vitamin D status in Tanzania. J Infect Dis 7: Association between vitamin D deficiency and primary cesarean section. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94 3: Prenatal maternal diet affects asthma risk in offspring. Fetal intraventricular bleeding possibly due to maternal vitamin K deficiency.

Fetal Diagn Ther 24 4: Maternal vitamin B12 status and risk of neural tube defects in a population with high neural tube defect prevalence and no folic acid fortification. Prevention of neural tube defects: Implications of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy and lactation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 5: Low maternal vitamin B12 status is associated with intrauterine growth retardation in urban South Indians. Eur J Clin Nutr 60 6: Vitamin D insufficiency common in newborns, children and pregnant women living in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.

Matern Child Nutr 5 2: Hayes and Nigel A. Maternal iron status in early pregnancy and birth outcomes: Prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status during pregnancy. Ir Med J 8: Influence of calcium intake on gestational hypertension.

Ann Nutr Metab Maternal vitamin D in pregnancy may influence not only offspring bone mass but other aspects of musculoskeletal health and adiposity. Med Hypotheses 71 2: Prenatal vitamin supplementation and pediatric brain tumors: Childs Nerv Syst 14 Vitamins C and E to prevent complications of pregnancy-associated hypertension.

Clin Exp Allergy 40 5: Relationship between pregnancy outcomes and maternal vitamin D and calcium intake: Gynecol Endocrinol 22 El-Sayed and Azza A.

The effect of zinc supplementation on pregnancy outcomes: Calcium supplementation in mild preeclampsia remote from term: Obstet Gynecol 85 6: Am J Epidemiol 2: Risks of orofacial clefts in children born to women using multivitamins containing folic acid periconceptionally.

DNA methylation, insulin resistance, and blood pressure in offspring determined by maternal periconceptional B vitamin and methionine status. Proc Natl Acad Sci Slovis TL, Chapman S. Pediatr Radiol 38 Amer Coll Obstet Gynecol 3: Childhood cancer and vitamins: Pediatr Blood Cancer 50 2 Suppl: Use of cod liver oil during the first year of life is associated with lower risk of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes: Association between maternal use of folic acid supplements and risk of autism spectrum disorders in children.

Vitamin B and neural tube defects: Am J Clin Nutr 89 2: Essential fatty acids in visual and brain development. Multivitamin use and the risk of preterm birth. Calcium metabolism, calcium supplementation and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Genetic and lifestyle factors related to the periconception vitamin B12 status and congenital heart defects: Mol Genet Metab 94 1: Effects of maternal vitamin supplements on malaria in children born to HIV-infected women.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 76 6: High-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in a cohort of breastfeeding mothers and their infants: Breastfeed Med 1 2: Periconceptional folic acid exposure and risk of occurrent neural tube defects. Effect of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant formula on problem solving at 10 months of age.

Early life factors in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Curr Osteoporos Rep 7 4: Nutritional control of fetal growth.

Nutr Rev 64 5 Pt 2: Vitamin B12 and folate concentrations during pregnancy and insulin resistance in the offspring: Young GL, Jewell D. Interventions for leg cramps in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1: Vitamin D deficiency and supplementation during pregnancy. Clin Endocrinol Oxf 70 5: Zatollah Asemi et al. Magnesium supplementation affects metabolic status and pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes: First published May 27, , doi: Clinical manifestations of infants with nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency due to maternal dietary deficiency.

Maternal plasma hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus. PLoS One 3 Synergistic inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 expression by vitamin E and aspirin. Free Rad Bio Med 29 Adams JS, Hewison M. Unexpected actions of vitamin D: Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 4 2: La valoración nutricional de la madre y el recién nacido es un criterio ampliamente usado con fines pronósticos y de manejo clínico.

Los índices antropométricos que relacionan el peso y la talla, fueron calculados mediante sus fórmulas respectivas: Diagnóstico nutricional, índices antropométricos. Nutritional assessment is a widely used criterion for prognostic purposes and clinical management.

In obstetrics, maternal and neonatal body mass index and neonatal ponderal index, respectively, are used. To construct bidimensional tables to facilitate indexes obtaining process in clinical practice, moreover, graphs also are recommend for nutritional categorize using this indexes.

The anthropometric indexes that associate weight with height were calculated by their respectively formulas: For the subsequently categorization of both maternal and neonatal nutritional status, these indexes have to be judged in terms of gestational age graphics. For this process, we recommend national standard references. Two bidimensional tables were built to calculate the indexes and were delimited according to anthropometric averages of our population. These tables will facilitate the obtaining of indexes by the clinicians and, at the same time, the nutritional status diagnosis of pregnant women and their newborn.

Nutritional assessment, anthropometric indexes. En medicina materno fetal la valoración nutricional es un criterio ampliamente utilizado con fines pronósticos y de manejo clínico , la desnutrición materna tradicionalmente ha sido considerada un factor de riesgo para el normal desarrollo del feto.

El sobrepeso y la obesidad materna representan mayor riesgo perinatal, aumentando el riesgo en términos de macrosomia y partos distócicos.

En , Hadlock y cols 14 proponen una evaluación de la relación entre el perímetro abdominal como indicador de peso fetal y la longitud del fémur como indicador de la longitud fetal. Por otro lado para la valoración neonatal del crecimiento intrauterino, tradicionalmente se ha utilizado el criterio de Battaglia y Lubchenco 2, 21 , relacionando el peso del recién nacido RN en función de la edad gestacional.

El IPN se multiplica por para obtener unidades de uso habitual, un entero y dos decimales. Con valores de referencia para la semana gestacional 10 a la Con valores de referencia para la semana 24 a la Factores de riesgo de retardo de crecimiento intrauterino y prematurez en dos municipios de Buenos Aires Argentina.

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