Breastfeeding With a Supplemental Nursing System

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The Ultimate Nursing Care Plan Database
Be sure that consent is obtained and that the patient is aware of possible reactions. Dehydration and kidney compromise is a potential complication, therefore we must watch for it diligently. Pneumonia can be caused by a virus, bacteria, fungus, or from inhaling something a chemical, inhalant, or aspirating on food or fluid. Nonetheless, many nurses fill positions in the senior management structure of NHS organizations, some even as board members. Retrieved 25 February It is formed in the liver spleen and bone marrow. Any lung irritant can cause COPD and also exacerbate it.

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We promise to never spam you, and just use your email address to identify you as a valid customer. This product hasn't received any reviews yet. Be the first to review this product! All prices are in USD. Is an enzyme that helps the interaction of myosin and actin in the cardiac muscle. When necrosis of the myocyte happens, the contents of the cell eventually will be released into the bloodstream. Troponin can become elevated hours after in ischemic cardiac event and can stay elevated for up to 14 days.

This enzyme is found in the cardiac muscle cells and catalyses the conversion of ATP into ADP giving your cells energy to contract. When the cardiac muscle cells are damaged the enzyme is eventually released into the bloodstream.

CKMB levels should be checked at admission, and then every 8 hours afterwards. Etiology Any issue with the cardiovascular system could potentially cause CHF or put the patient at a much higher risk for CHF , such as myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, hypertension, cardiomyopathy, heart arrhythmias, etc. Desired Outcome maximized cardiac functionality as well as decreased stress on the cardiovascular system.

Restrict sodium intake Water follows salt! The patient has too much fluid on board and needs to get rid of it, restricting the sodium helps with this. This means educating the patient on dietary changes that need to happen and be adhered to. Try to stay between mg of salt in a serving. Monitor BNP Normal range: Brain natriuretic peptide BNP: When the heart is stressed or working hard to pump blood, it releases BNP. Listen to breath sounds Monitor O2 saturation Fluid can back up into the lungs and cause shortness of breath, especially upon exertion.

Be careful about laying these patients flat as you can put them in respiratory distress. Place the patient on O2 as needed to help them keep their O2 levels adequate. Furosemide Lasix Bumetanide Bumex Hydrochlorothiazide Microzide Spironolactone Aldactone We need to get all this fluid out of the patient… The best way to do this is administer diuretics.

Most commonly used diuretics in congestive heart failure are loop and sometimes thiazides are used with loop diuretics: This can change per patient and per doctor recommendation, so make sure to get a goal from the physician. Cirrhosis Nursing Care Plan. Pathophysiology Liver cirrhosis is a chronic, irreversible liver disease. Desired Outcome Minimize continued liver damage, optimize nutrition, maximize hepatic circulation, minimize and prevent respiratory complications.

Nursing Interventions and Rationales Promote nutrition Many who suffer from cirrhosis have impaired nutrition and require nutritional support with specific vitamins and minerals; enteral or parenteral feedings may be ordered Assist with paracentesis, if needed Patients may require the abdominal fluid that has built up ascites to be drained.

Assist in set-up, positioning, and post-procedure site assessments, and monitoring as needed. Daily weights This indicates if fluid has been accumulating, or if patient is losing weight Dietary adjustments: Monitor for excess fluid volume assess daily weight, JVD, blood pressure Increasing values indicate vascular congestion Note and address electrolyte imbalances Fluid and electrolyte imbalances are common and can result in dysrhythmias Promote oral care Patients are at a higher risk for bleeding gums and mouth sores, which can cause a decreased appetite in an already malnourished individual Complete a careful and comprehensive respiratory assessment vitals, labs, auscultation Essential to note impaired gas exchange and compromised respiratory function early.

Pathophysiology Less air flow is able to flow into and out of the alveoli both trapping CO2 as well as restricting O2 entering. Desired Outcome Clear, even, non-labored breathing while maintaining optimal oxygenation for patient. Nursing Interventions and Rationales Avoid irritants: Quit smoking or being around smoke Be mindful of the weather very cold can aggravate the bronchi Allergens like dust or pollen The key to avoiding a flare up of COPD is to avoid things that make it worse.

If the patient is smoking still this is a priority, they need to quit smoking. Provide education on smoking with COPD and the benefits of quitting. If the patient has been working very hard to breath for a long period of time and is getting worse, be prepared with an airway cart. And for the love of the airway, have your respiratory therapist aware of the patient! Breathing Treatments and medications Beta-Agonists: Plan the oxygen monitoring with the physician. Give oxygen as ordered and needed.

Obtain an ECG The lungs and the heart are in the same general area, if someone is having problems breathing, make sure their heart is ok. Encourage a healthy weight Can be either overweight or underweight Having access weight on the patient decreases the space for the lungs to expand. Plus, generally those who lose weight are also moving more to lose the weight, double win. Some patients especially those with emphysema can be very thin barrel chested and it is important to make sure they are getting the proper nutrition so their body is at optimal performance for that patient.

Helping the patient move more often helps improve breathing abilities. Pathophysiology Blood clots formed from any source, lodging in the patient leg or arm, impeding blood flow. Etiology Narrowing or occlusion of the vessels in an extremity. Desired Outcome Stabilization of the blood clot or disintegration of the blood clot as well as prophylaxis treatment for future blood clots.

Subjective and Objective Data Subjective Data Painful extremity Numbness and tingling on affected extremity Potential subjective data to be concerned about and monitor for: Chest Pain CP Stroke: Objective Data Warm, red, firm and swollen leg Decreased peripheral pulse on affected extremity. Nursing Interventions and Rationales Assess a full neuro exam, assess breathing-Pulse oximetry, difficulty in breathing, chest pain, obtain an EKG. Heparin- initial therapy to break up clot.

Transition into a SubQ or oral anticoagulant to prevent future clots. This is an anticoagulant that breaks up blood clots as well as prevents them. Patient will need to have frequent blood draws to monitor their INR. Therapeutic range is between 2 and 3. Educate about avoiding vitamin K both supplements as well as food Vitamin K works to help increase clotting, this is opposite of what we are trying to do for this patient, unless of course they are bleeding out, in which case the treatment may be vitamin K with Fresh Frozen Plasma FFP Continuous monitoring: This monitors for changes in oxygenation if the clot moves to the lungs.

Nosebleeds are obvious, however, inform the patient that if they bleed through nasal packing for longer than 15 minutes they should go to the ER. Also they they feel dizzy, faint, or are losing color in their face they should go to the ER.

Diabetes Nursing Care Plan. Etiology The cause for Type I diabetes is unknown, but hypothesized to be potentially genetic or triggered by a virus. Desired Outcome Blood sugar control with minimal side effects. Nursing Interventions and Rationales Blood sugar monitoring: The physician will make a target blood glucose level.

Teach the patient that they need to monitor their blood glucose. Teach the patient how to use their glucometer and record their results. Insulin administration -Rapid Acting: Each institution has guidelines and each insulin has guidelines. Following the guidelines, make sure you know the onset, peak and duration of each type of insulin. Up to 12 hours -Intermediate Action Onset: Up to 24 hours -Long Acting Onset: Up to 24 hours To administer insulin, teach the patient to rotate injection sites and to clean the site with alcohol prior to inserting needle.

Educate about nutritional changes and monitoring This would be a good time to get the dietician involved. The patient needs to learn at a minimum, how to count carbs and which foods to avoid such as beer. If the patient is hypoglycemic, and they are able to eat or drink, give them some OJ and graham crackers with peanut butter.

Increase water intake if the patient has hyperglycemia Monitor feet and educate about monitoring feet Both decreased blood flow to the feet as well as neuropathy occur to make the feet something the patient really needs to watch. Wounds are hard to heal so if they are having a hard time feeling their feet and they become injured, the wounds will be worse than with someone without diabetes.

Teach the patient to check their feet everyday. Washing their feet, cutting their toenails straight across, and scrubbing off calluses gently are a couple of points to make with the patient. The patient may have a podiatrist involved in their care as well. Placing strain on the cardiovascular system wrecks havoc on other organ systems. Being diabetic makes the chances of that system having issues worse. A patient can lose their vision, kidney function, have a stroke or heart attack. Educate about maintaining a healthy weight and keeping active With a healthy weight, the patient is likely also implementing a healthy diet as well as implementing more movement.

These three things weight, diet, exercise can help to manage or even reverse diabetes. Healthy weights are calculated based on height and sex of the patient. Other ways to monitor the size of the patient is to use a BMI calculator or measure waist circumference. Etiology Ketoacidosis can occur when diabetic patients experience emotional or physical stress such as with bacterial infections UTI, etc , prolonged vomiting, surgery or when they miss doses of insulin.

Desired Outcome Maintain blood glucose level within the target range, maintain normal fluid balance. Blurry vision Excessive urination. Monitor glucose and intervene with prescribed insulin as appropriate to reduce glucose levels and prevent further ketone production. Monitor fluid and electrolyte balance to prevent dehydration and complications such as decreased sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium Excess blood glucose can cause nausea and vomiting resulting in electrolyte imbalances.

These electrolyte deficiencies can lead to further complications and cardiac arrhythmias. Assess for fever and other symptoms of infection and administer antibiotics as necessary. Administer medications as appropriate Medications may be given to lower the blood glucose level in order to prevent further production of ketones or to manage symptoms of vomiting and underlying infection.

This will be evident by low blood pressure and tachycardia Prevent injury and falls; assist with ambulation Fatigue and weakness are common due to the cells inability to use glucose to produce energy, also following vomiting, and in cases of dehydration. Nutrition and lifestyle education Maintaining a high blood glucose level, missing doses of insulin or being sick can cause ketones to form in the blood.

Educate patients on healthy diet and lifestyle to prevent DKA. Emphysema Nursing Care Plan. Pathophysiology Destruction of the alveoli shapes and functionality. Etiology Exposure to lung irritants in the air: Nursing Interventions and Rationales Auscultate lung sounds If wheezy they may need a breathing treatment If you hear crackles they may have pneumonia and potentially could use suctioning.

Monitor ABGs Blood gases help to determine if the patient is in respiratory acidosis. Encourage a healthy weight Early stages of emphysema: Plus, generally those who lose weight are also moving more to lose the wieght, double win.

In later stages of emphysema, the patient can be very thin barrel chested and it is important to make sure they are getting the proper nutrition so their body is at optimal performance for that patient. Prepare for the worst: Breathing treatments and medications Beta-Agonists: Gerd Nursing Care Plan. Pathophysiology The repeated assault of stomach acid and bile into the esophagus. Etiology A weakened esophageal sphincter allowing the acid or bile up into the esophagus from the stomach.

Desired Outcome Maintain a normal amount of acid in the stomach, eliminate or decrease burning in the esophagus from acid splashing up and protect the GI tract from bleeding. Nursing Interventions and Rationales Educate on the benefits of lifestyle changes: Quitting smoking Wear loose fitting clothing Keeping active Quitting smoking: Nicotine relaxes the esophageal sphincter. Teaching the patients about the connection helps give them another reason to quit.

Wear loose fitting clothing: Having the midsection squeezed puts pressure on the stomach-this is the same concept as being overweight. Helps the patient lose weight, which is important since excess weight pushes on the stomach. Esomeprazole Lansoprazole Omeprazole Pantoprazole Antacids: Maalox Mylanta Rolaids H2 Blockers: Cimetidine Famotidine Nizatidine Ranitidine Prokinetics: Erythromycin Proton Pump Inhibitors: Neutralizes stomach acid H2 Blockers: Decreases the amount of acid made in the stomach -Inhibits action of histamine leading to inhibition of gastric acid secretion Prokinetics: Helps to empty the stomach faster.

Helps to empty the stomach faster watch out for diarrhea though! Educate on nutritional changes Nutritional changes such as not over eating, avoiding acidic foods like orange juice or spicy foods such as salsa. Also after eating, be sure to have the patient sitting in an upright position for at least hours.

Also, having a patient sleep with their HOB greater than 30 degrees helps. Prepare the patient for a Barium Swallow Test An X-Ray tech will perform this test, your job as a nurse is to prepare the patient for this appointment. Generally the patient has been NPO but check with the hospital policy or through the X-Ray tech as to how long they would like the patient to be NPO prior to the test. Assist with Endoscopy This procedure allows the visualization of the esophagus and the esophageal sphincter.

The nurse will be administering sedative medications, maintaining the airway and monitoring vital signs. Obtain an ECG The symptoms of chest burning and pain are similar to that of a heart attack. It is always important to eliminate the heart as a problem, and not to just assume that the patient is experiencing GERD symptoms. Encourage a healthy weight Access fat on a patient usually shows up in their abdomen and the displaces their stomach, increasing the risk of acid or bile deviously sneaking into the supposed off limits zones.

Pathophysiology Bleeding along the lining of the Gastrointestinal Tract is hard to recognize because it is not something you can see immediately, or necessarily get imaging or laboratory test work to discover the cause of bleeding right away. Etiology The bleeding along the GI tract is from a perforation somewhere in the intestines or stomach. Desired Outcome Controlling and stopping of the bleeding, vital signs back to baseline, normal blood counts such as hemoglobin. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure When the heart is low on fluids to fill it, it will start beating faster and your pressure gets lower.

If patient becomes hypotensive, put them in reverse trendelenburg, give them fluids, and get the physician. When administering the blood, remember to have the blood product double checked with another nurse. Vital signs every Administer pantoprazole Protonix Potential surgical intervention to stop the bleeding Give pantoprazole Protonix , a proton pump inhibitor PPI that decreases the amount of acid in the GI lining.

If it is not able to stop the bleeding, potential surgical intervention may be needed to stop the bleed. Also-To be noted is the use of anticoagulants warfarin, aspirin, heparin, etc.

Ask all your patients if they take an anticoagulant regardless of their issues, it is important to know. Make sure that the heart is still lub-dubbing as it should be.

Assess for bleeding in stool GI bleed: Fall precautions The patient is at an increased risk for fall. This means that it is super important to educate the patient on using the call light if they need to get up and assisting with any mobilization of the patient. Glaucoma Nursing Care Plan. Pathophysiology Glaucoma is group of diseases in which the pathophysiology is not fully understood.

Etiology The exact cause of glaucoma is unknown. Desired Outcome Decrease intraocular pressure as quickly as possible, prevent further visual damage. Nursing Interventions and Rationales Prevent further compromised vision Must report changing assessment findings to the provider promptly, especially with angle-closure glaucoma because timing is a factor in preventing permanent blindness.

Remove as much clutter, cords, rugs, etc. This is especially important in the patient with sudden visual changes, as they have not slowly adapted over years as one may have with progressive loss. Appropriately assess vision You must know the degree of visual compromise so that you are able to tell if it has changed. Educate about appropriate eye drop administration Post-procedure or during long-term management, patients are frequently on various various eye drops. They may need additional intervention with color-coding bottles because they may not be able to clearly read labels.

Ensure support systems are equally aware of regimen. Educate about importance of follow-up care Compliance is key! Patients must follow be compliant with their treatment regimen to prevent further deterioration. Manage pain Patients can have sudden pain, which will increase their intraocular pressure, making the problem even worse. Manage anxiety A sudden inability to see or the new knowledge that you will have a degree of blindness is upsetting.

Provide as much education and emotional support as possible, and if necessary, administer medications. Gout Nursing Care Plan. Pathophysiology Gout is a metabolic disorder and form of arthritis. Etiology Essentially, gout is caused by too much uric acid in the blood. Nursing Interventions and Rationales Treat pain: Hypertension Nursing Care Plan. Pathophysiology The pathophysiology of HTN is quite complex. Etiology Primary HTN can be caused by many different factors. Desired Outcome Control blood pressure down to a safe level appropriately.

You may want to speak with a pharmacist about optimal medication timing. Control pain Pain will increase blood pressure. Control as much as possible and time appropriately with activity. Educate about disease process, treatment regimen, dietary changes Education is key because you cannot feel HTN.

Patients must understand how important compliance is to prevent major events in the future. Leukemia Nursing Care Plan. Pathophysiology Leukemia is a cancer of the blood. Etiology The exact etiology of leukemia is unknown, but there seems to be higher likelihood of it developing when certain environmental and genetic factors are present.

Desired Outcome Minimize complications, resolve and recover from leukemia if possible. Nursing Interventions and Rationales Prevent infection Patients with leukemia have an impaired ability to fight infection and therefore we must be diligent in preventing infection. This includes strict hand hygiene, which is the most effective infection prevention measure. Promote normothermia Progressive hyperthermia may occur, therefore it's essential to monitor body temp closely, especially if patient is receiving chemotherapy.

Sepsis surveillance Patients undergoing leukemia treatment are at higher risk for developing sepsis, so make sure to monitor them closely and notify the MD when needed. Educate patient and loved ones about infection prevention The patient and support system must be compliant with infection prevention measures for this to be successful, not just the health care team. They must understand its importance and be equally as diligent. Educate patient and loved ones about plan of care, symptoms to expect, and when to get concerned The more the patient and family can predict or be aware of, the better.

Therefore, it is essential to take extra care to prevent breakdown Avoid procedures that would increase infection risk: Must weigh risk versus benefit, and patients with leukemia are at a much higher risk for infection, so the benefit of said procedures may not outweigh the risk. Initiate bleeding precautions Clotting factors are impaired and therefore patients with leukemia are at an increased risk for bleeding. Cluster care and conserve energy Energy conservation is essential.

We must maximize the time in which the patient is able to care for themselves. Feedings, ambulating and toileting is the priority.

Therefore, do not disturb their sleep unnecessarily. Cluster labs, vitals, and other aspects of care as clinically appropriate. Pain medications may be ordered scheduled rather than PRN. Assess appropriately type, severity, precipitating and aggravating factors, what relieves the pain, and so forth.

Leverage non-pharmacological interventions to complement pharmacological interventions by timing appropriately. Promote assistive devices to conserve energy Walkers, wheelchairs, canes, shower chairs, are all things that can help the patient conserve energy while still participating in their own care. Make sure to educate and visualize a return demonstration before allowing independent use. Time pain medications and antimetics to be at their peak for therapy, chemo, and meals.

By timing these meds to be at their peak when anticipating increased pain and nausea, you can increase intake and their ability to participate in therapy.

Patients will most likely need assistance in caring for themselves. Prioritize their activities to promote those that are involved in their own care conserve energy to feed self over walking up and down halls. Closely monitor intake and output, assess for signs of dehydration skin turgor, mucous membranes, cap refill. Dehydration and kidney compromise is a potential complication, therefore we must watch for it diligently.

Please see the quote below: It does increase cost and makes the patient feel isolated, straining their mental health unnecessarily. Pathophysiology Cardiac muscle tissue death from lack of blood flow. Etiology Narrowing or occlusion of the cardiac vessels that perfuse the heart. Desired Outcome Re-perfusion to cardiac muscle and return of cardiac muscle functionality, or as much as possible. Initial dose is mg IV. Evidence based research has left the use of oxygenation and its helpfulness in these situations inconclusive.

Oxygen can cause vasoconstriction thus worsening the situation and decreasing blood flow. Administer oxygen when clinically relevant. This is the initial medication given, along with aspirin.

This medication dilates the blood vessels to help allow any blood flow that might be impeded. This can happen 3 times total. A total of 4 baby aspirin 81 mg each can be given for a total of mg. If the ECG is a normal sinus or otherwise non-concerning rhythm, place them on a 3 or 5 lead cardiac monitor for frequent re-assessing.

Right sided 12 lead ECG shows the right side of the heart to assess for right ventricular ischemia. You are worried about a worsening condition such as cardiac arrest.

BP Monitoring The measurement is determined by the doctor, who is determining this based on evidence based research married with patient factors.

This can also be monitored by an arterial line. This is important because the higher the blood pressure, the more pressure is on a clot.

Heparin This is an anticoagulant that breaks up blood clots as well as prevents them. If they are elevated it indicates that the cardiac muscle is stressed out or injured.

Troponin I is an enzyme that helps the interaction of myosin and actin in the cardiac muscle. Neutropenia Nursing Care Plan. Pathophysiology Neutropenia is an abnormally low count of neutrophils, which is a type of white blood cell.

Desired Outcome Restore neutrophil count, prevent additional destruction, prevent infection. Promote oral care The mouth is a place that can get infected easily, especially if a patient is on antibiotics, which destroys some of the good bacteria there.

Brushing and flossing regularly is essential. Promote hygiene Proper hygiene reduces the risk for infection, which is our main concern with neutropenia.

Prevent skin breakdown Skin is an essential aspect of our body that prevents infection. Therefore, if it is compromised, it can be quite a problem for a patient with neutropenia. Prevent ulcers and breakdown, as they may not be able to heal properly and prevent healing and recovery. Promote nutrition and ensure food is prepared and stored appropriately Food that is not stored or prepared properly could cause infection.

Listeria is a food-borne illness that could be quite detrimental to a neutropenic patient. Osteoporosis Nursing Care Plan. Pathophysiology Even after bone are done growing after childhood, bones are constantly being broken down and replaced. Etiology During younger years, bone is regenerated faster than old is broken down. Desired Outcome Address any underlying causes and prevent fractures.

Nursing Interventions and Rationales Prevent injury initiate fall precautions Injury can be catastrophic for patients with osteoporosis, as a fall could much more easily cause major fractures Control pain Patients with fractures typically experience pain; pain control is essential to participating in rebab Consult physical and occupational therapy as appropriate Establishing rehab needs and plan for nursing to assist with implementation; also safely evaluates their max functional level Assist with ROM activities Patients may require assistance to ensure appropriate movement occurs to prevent atrophy from immobility Try to avoid using restraints if possible A patient is much more likely to cause a fracture from restraints if they have osteoporosis and confusion.

It is especially important to avoid restraints in these patients. Assist with repositioning every 2 hours if needed Repositioning skin breakdown; assist patient with this if they are unable to do so themselves Promote appropriate bowel habits Decreased mobility, pain, medications, and so forth all contribute to constipation.

Being proactive rather than reactive will safe the patient discomfort, additional pain, and increase compliance with treatment regimen. Promote nutrition Prevents skin breakdown, promotes healing.

Increasing calcium intake and supplementation as appropriate Support fracture stabilization Whether cast or splint, ensure it is on appropriately and evaluate for skin irritation and breakdown. Assess for appropriate circulation. Monitor for fat embolism Fat embolism is a complication from a fracture respiratory insufficiency, rash. Pneumonia Nursing Care Plan.

Pathophysiology Pneumonia is essentially when fluid or pus gets trapped in the alveoli of the lungs pictured below and impaired gas exchange results. Etiology Pneumonia can be caused by a virus, bacteria, fungus, or from inhaling something a chemical, inhalant, or aspirating on food or fluid. Desired Outcome Resolve the infection, optimize gas exchange, minimize impact from impaired gas exchange.

If patient is able to clear their own airway, continue to encourage this. If not, suction frequently and consider an advanced airway to ensure a patent airway, which ultimately maximizes gas exchange. Getting phlegm out is important. Optimize fluid balance Patients with pneumonia may not be consuming adequate oral intake due to fatigue or not feeling well, but hydration is essential to healing.

The Nightingale-style school began to disappear. Hospitals and physicians saw women in nursing as a source of free or inexpensive labor. Exploitation of nurses was not uncommon by employers, physicians and educational providers.

Many nurses saw active duty in World War I , but the profession was transformed during the second World War. British nurses of the Army Nursing Service were part of every overseas campaign. The modern era saw the development of undergraduate and post-graduate nursing degrees. Advancement of nursing research and a desire for association and organization led to the formation of a wide variety of professional organizations and academic journals.

Growing recognition of nursing as a distinct academic discipline was accompanied by an awareness of the need to define the theoretical basis for practice. In the 19th and early 20th century, nursing was considered a women's profession, just as doctoring was a men's profession.

With increasing expectations of workplace equality during the late 20th century, nursing became an officially gender-neutral profession, though in practice the percentage of male nurses remains well below that of female physicians in the early 21st century. Although nursing practice varies both through its various specialties and countries, these nursing organizations offer the following definitions:.

Nursing encompasses autonomous and collaborative care of individuals of all ages, families, groups and communities, sick or well and in all settings. Nursing includes the promotion of health, prevention of illness, and the care of ill, disabled and dying people. Advocacy, promotion of a safe environment, research, participation in shaping health policy and in patient and health systems management, and education are also key nursing roles.

The use of clinical judgment in the provision of care to enable people to improve, maintain, or recover health, to cope with health problems, and to achieve the best possible quality of life, whatever their disease or disability, until death.

Nursing is the protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities; prevention of illness and injury; alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human responses; and advocacy in health care for individuals, families, communities, and populations.

The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery or to peaceful death that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will or knowledge.

The authority for the practice of nursing is based upon a social contract that delineates professional rights and responsibilities as well as mechanisms for public accountability. In almost all countries, nursing practice is defined and governed by law, and entrance to the profession is regulated at the national or state level.

The aim of the nursing community worldwide is for its professionals to ensure quality care for all, while maintaining their credentials, code of ethics , standards, and competencies, and continuing their education. Nurses care for individuals of all ages and cultural backgrounds who are healthy and ill in a holistic manner based on the individual's physical, emotional, psychological, intellectual, social, and spiritual needs.

The profession combines physical science, social science, nursing theory, and technology in caring for those individuals. To work in the nursing profession, all nurses hold one or more credentials depending on their scope of practice and education. In the United States, a licensed practical nurse LPN also referred to as a licensed vocational nurse, registered practical nurse works independently or with a registered nurse RN. The most significant differentiation between an LPN and RN is found in the requirements for entry to practice, which determines entitlement for their scope of practice.

A registered nurse provides scientific, psychological, and technological knowledge in the care of patients and families in many health care settings. Registered nurses may earn additional credentials or degrees.

In the United States, multiple educational paths will qualify a candidate to sit for the licensure examination as a registered nurse. The Associate Degree in Nursing ADN is awarded to the nurse who has completed a two-year undergraduate academic degree awarded by community colleges, junior colleges, technical colleges, and bachelor's degree-granting colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study usually lasting two years.

After completing either the LPN or either RN education programs in the United States, graduates are eligible to sit for a licensing examination to become a nurse, the passing of which is required for the nursing license. The National Licensure Examination NCLEX test is a standardized exam including multiple choice, select all that apply, fill in the blank and "hot spot" questions that nurses take to become licensed.

It examines a nurses ability to properly care for a client. Study books and practice tests are available for purchase. Nurses may follow their personal and professional interests by working with any group of people, in any setting, at any time. Some nurses follow the traditional role of working in a hospital setting. There are many other options nurses can explore depending on the type of degree and education acquired.

RNs may also pursue different roles as advanced practice registered nurses. Nurses are not truly doctor's assistants. This is possible in certain situations, but nurses more often are independently caring for their patients or assisting other nurses. Nurses also help doctors perform diagnostic tests. Nurses are almost always working on their own or with other nurses. Nurses will assist doctors in the emergency room or in trauma care when help is needed.

Despite equal opportunity legislation, nursing has continued to be a female-dominated profession. The nursing industry is dominated by females, but there are male nurses in the profession as well. Nursing practice is the actual provision of nursing care. In providing care, nurses implement the nursing care plan using the nursing process. This is based around a specific nursing theory which is selected based on the care setting and population served.

In providing nursing care, the nurse uses both nursing theory and best practice derived from nursing research. In general terms, the nursing process is the method used to assess and diagnose needs, plan outcomes and interventions, implement interventions, and evaluate the outcomes of the care provided. Like other disciplines, the profession has developed different theories derived from sometimes diverse philosophical beliefs and paradigms or worldviews to help nurses direct their activities to accomplish specific goals.

Assisting in activities of daily living ADL are skills required in nursing as well as other professions such as nursing assistants. This includes assisting in patient mobility, such as moving an activity intolerant patient within bed. For hygiene, this often involves bed baths and assisting with urinary and bowel elimination. Nurses do not have the authority to prescribe medications, with some exceptions.

All medications administered by nurses must be from a medication prescription from a licensed practitioner. Nurses are legally responsible for the drugs they administer and there may be legal implications when there is an error in a prescription and the nurse could be expected to have noted and reported error.

In the United States, nurses have the right to refuse any medication administration that they deem to be harmful to the patient.

The patient's family is often involved in the education. Effective patient education leads to fewer complications and hospital visits. Nursing is the most diverse of all healthcare professions. Nurses practice in a wide range of settings but generally nursing is divided depending on the needs of the person being nursed. There are also specialist areas such as cardiac nursing , orthopedic nursing , palliative care , perioperative nursing , obstetrical nursing , oncology nursing , nursing informatics , telenursing.

Nurses practice in a wide range of settings, from hospitals to visiting people in their homes and caring for them in schools to research in pharmaceutical companies. Nurses work in occupational health settings [52] also called industrial health settings , free-standing clinics and physician offices, nurse-led clinics , long-term care facilities and camps.

They also work on cruise ships and in military service. Nurses act as advisers and consultants to the health care and insurance industries. Many nurses also work in the health advocacy and patient advocacy fields at companies such as Health Advocate , Inc. Nurses can work on a temporary basis, which involves doing shifts without a contract in a variety of settings, sometimes known as per diem nursing , agency nursing or travel nursing.

Nurses work as researchers in laboratories, universities, and research institutions. Nurses have also been delving into the world of informatics, acting as consultants to the creation of computerized charting programs and other software. Internationally, there is a serious shortage of nurses. In a recent review of the empirical human factors and ergonomic literature specific to nursing performance, nurses were found to work in generally poor environmental conditions.

Some countries and states have passed legislation regarding acceptable nurse-to-patient ratios. The fast-paced and unpredictable nature of health care places nurses at risk for injuries and illnesses, including high occupational stress. Nursing is a particularly stressful profession, and nurses consistently identify stress as a major work-related concern and have among the highest levels of occupational stress when compared to other professions.

This stress is caused by the environment, psychosocial stressors, and the demands of nursing, including new technology that must be mastered, the emotional labor involved in nursing, physical labor, shift work , and high workload.

This stress puts nurses at risk for short-term and long-term health problems, including sleep disorders , depression , mortality , psychiatric disorders, stress-related illnesses, and illness in general. Nurses are at risk of developing compassion fatigue and moral distress , which can worsen mental health. Burnout and exhaustion increase the risk for illness, medical error, and suboptimal care provision.

It focuses on three high risk and preventable events:. Hospitals and other healthcare facilities can upload the occupational injury data they already collect for analysis and benchmarking with other de-identified facilities, in order to identify and implement timely and targeted interventions. Nurses are also at risk for violence and abuse in the workplace.

There are a number of interventions that can mitigate the occupational hazards of nursing. They can be individual-focused or organization-focused. Individual-focused interventions include stress management programs, which can be customized to individuals. Stress management programs can reduce anxiety, sleep disorders, and other symptoms of stress.

Organizational interventions focus on reducing stressful aspects of the work environment by defining stressful characteristics and developing solutions to them. Using organizational and individual interventions together is most effective at reducing stress on nurses. Catholic religious institutes were influential in the development of Australian nursing, founding many of Australia's hospitals — the Irish Sisters of Charity were first to arrive in and established St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney in as a free hospital for the poor.

They and other orders like the Sisters of Mercy , and in aged care the Sisters of the Little Company of Mary and Little Sisters of the Poor founded hospitals, hospices, research institutes and aged care facilities around Australia.

A census in the s found several hundred nurses working in Western Australia during the colonial period of history, this included Aboriginal female servants who cared for the infirm. Enrolled and registered nurses are identified by the department of immigration as an occupational area of need, although registered nurses are always in shorter supply, and this increases in proportion with specialization.

In there were a number of rolling industrial actions around the country, culminating when five thousand Victorian nurses went on strike for eighteen days. The hospitals were able to function by hiring casual staff from each other's striking members, but the increased cost forced a decision in the nurses' favor [62]. In the European Union, the profession of nurse is regulated. A profession is said to be regulated when access and exercise is subject to the possession of a specific professional qualification.

The regulated professions database contains a list of regulated professions for nurse [63] in the EU member states, EEA countries and Switzerland. Nursing educational program in Iran is similar to the nursing educational program in other countries from some aspects. Holding secondary school diploma and passing the entrance exam is necessary for the admission in this course. Entrance exam to governmental universities and Azad University is held on separate basis.

Duration of associate degree course of operating room and anesthesia is 2 years, bachelor's degree in nursing is 4 years and master's degree in nursing is 2- 2. In the beginning, nursing educational program was the part of medical educational program.

On the basis of this structure, the nurse follows the instruction of physician without any question. Nowadays, nursing educational program in Iran has been progressed and after the year considering the community base care, the nursing educational program also has changed.

At present nursing education is held in 43 governmental nursing colleges and 63 nursing colleges of Azad University. Governmental universities' students do not have to pay tuition fee, but in Azad University, which is a private university, the students must pay necessary expenses. The PhD degree program is held only in governmental universities under the supervision of Ministry of Health and Ministry of Sciences.

In bachelor's degree program, nursing students start the clinical work from 2nd term and pass till the completion of 6th term simultaneously with theoretical subjects. At present nursing educational program in throughout Iran is the same and is compiled under the supervision of Supreme Council of Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education.

Nursing students take the theoretical subjects, training and internship courses in various sections of educational hospitals and hospitals that affiliated to universities. Students' learning, in clinical sections is performed under the direct supervision and guidance of nursing instructors, but in the final year, activities of students mainly performs under the supervision of nursing personnel and alternate supervision of nursing instructors.

Students, during the years of study have opportunity to create relation with patients in the various sections especially intensive care units and to achieve experiences. Students' progress in clinical environments is from simple issues toward harder issues. At present practical nursing degree and associate degree Nursing Program has been canceled and Iranian nurses must hold bachelor's degree to work in Iran from accredited universities confirmed by the Ministry of Health.

Nurse is a person who is holding four years university degree and executes works relating to nursing profession including taking care of patients, perform health and medical services, educational, research and managerial affairs. At present annually persons are graduated in the bachelor's degree program in nursing. A person who is holding secondary school diploma in nursing and have completed 2 years program in nursing and cooperate in activities of nurses in medical sections under the supervision of nurses.

A person who is holding secondary school diploma and passing short term program for the execution of initial cares of patients under the supervision of nurses. These persons after obtaining secondary school diploma and passing university's entrance exam and completing 2 years program are in charge of performing professional duties in operation room for preparing patients for surgery and necessary cooperation with surgeons at the time of surgery.

These persons by passing the exam are eligible to continue uncontinuous bachelor's degree course in nursing. These persons after obtaining secondary school diploma and passing university's entrance exam and completing 2 years program in Anesthesia, are in charge of performing profession duties in the operating room in the field of anesthesia including preparing the patients for anesthesia and necessary cooperation with anesthesiologists at the time of operation.

These persons by passing exam are eligible to continue uncontinuous bachelor's degree course in nursing. These persons after obtaining secondary school diploma and passing entrance exam of university and obtaining technician diploma are in change of performing affairs including rendering first aid services to the patients and emergency victims resulting from accidents with motor vehicles, explosion, debris, falling from height, fractures, burns, poisonings, cuts, drowning, industrial accidents cutting of limbs , patients with heart diseases and baby delivering.

Nurses after obtaining bachelor's degree and passing the entrance exam are eligible to continue their study in geriatric nursing, pediatric nursing, medical surgical nursing, community health nursing, psychiatric nursing and nursing education.

These persons after graduation mainly become in charge of nurses' education or management of medical sections. Duration of this program is 2. At present annually persons are graduated in master's degree program in nursing. Nurses by holding master's degree after passing entrance exam, are eligible to continue their study in PhD in the field of Nursing.

Duration of this program is 4 years and the graduates mainly will work in educational and research sections. At present annually 20 persons are graduated in this program. According to the censes at present approximately , nurses are working in Iran in various sections. Also, nurses are working in the hospitals affiliated to social security organization, armed forces, private sector and charity sector. Within the last years of independence, nurses' activities are established in offices of consultancy and rendering nursing services at home.

Nurses by establishment these centers can render consultant and care services to the client. At present to work as a nurse only holding accredited academic degree is sufficient, but there are programs for nurses to take RN examination after graduation.

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